Zero-shot learning (ZSL) which aims at predicting classes that have never appeared during the training using external knowledge (a.k.a. side information) has been widely investigated. In this paper we present a literature review towards ZSL in the perspective of external knowledge, where we categorize the external knowledge, review their methods and compare different external knowledge. With the literature review, we further discuss and outlook the role of symbolic knowledge in addressing ZSL and other machine learning sample shortage issues.
External knowledge (a.k.a side information) plays a critical role in zero-shot learning (ZSL) which aims to predict with unseen classes that have never appeared in training data. Several kinds of external knowledge such as text and attribute have been widely investigated, but they alone are limited with incomplete semantics. Therefore, some very recent studies propose to use Knowledge Graph (KG) due to its high expressivity and compatibility for representing kinds of knowledge. However, the ZSL community is still short of standard benchmarks for studying and comparing different KG-based ZSL methods. In this paper, we proposed 5 resources for KG-based research in zero-shot image classification (ZS-IMGC) and zero-shot KG completion (ZS-KGC). For each resource, we contributed a benchmark and its KG with semantics ranging from text to attributes, from relational knowledge to logical expressions. We have clearly presented how the resources are constructed, their statistics and formats, and how they can be utilized with cases in evaluating ZSL methods' performance and explanations. Our resources are available at https://github.com/China-UK-ZSL/Resources_for_KZSL.
Zero-shot Learning (ZSL), which aims to predict for those classes that have never appeared in the training data, has arisen hot research interests. The key of implementing ZSL is to leverage the prior knowledge of classes which builds the semantic relationship between classes and enables the transfer of the learned models (e.g., features) from training classes (i.e., seen classes) to unseen classes. However, the priors adopted by the existing methods are relatively limited with incomplete semantics. In this paper, we explore richer and more competitive prior knowledge to model the inter-class relationship for ZSL via ontology-based knowledge representation and semantic embedding. Meanwhile, to address the data imbalance between seen classes and unseen classes, we developed a generative ZSL framework with Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). Our main findings include: (i) an ontology-enhanced ZSL framework that can be applied to different domains, such as image classification (IMGC) and knowledge graph completion (KGC); (ii) a comprehensive evaluation with multiple zero-shot datasets from different domains, where our method often achieves better performance than the state-of-the-art models. In particular, on four representative ZSL baselines of IMGC, the ontology-based class semantics outperform the previous priors e.g., the word embeddings of classes by an average of 12.4 accuracy points in the standard ZSL across two example datasets (see Figure 4).
Supervised machine learning has several drawbacks that make it difficult to use in many situations. Drawbacks include: heavy reliance on massive training data, limited generalizability and poor expressiveness of high-level semantics. Low-shot Learning attempts to address these drawbacks. Low-shot learning allows the model to obtain good predictive power with very little or no training data, where structured knowledge plays a key role as a high-level semantic representation of human. This article will review the fundamental factors of low-shot learning technologies, with a focus on the operation of structured knowledge under different low-shot conditions. We also introduce other techniques relevant to low-shot learning. Finally, we point out the limitations of low-shot learning, the prospects and gaps of industrial applications, and future research directions.
Zero-shot learning (ZSL) is a popular research problem that aims at predicting for those classes that have never appeared in the training stage by utilizing the inter-class relationship with some side information. In this study, we propose to model the compositional and expressive semantics of class labels by an OWL (Web Ontology Language) ontology, and further develop a new ZSL framework with ontology embedding. The effectiveness has been verified by some primary experiments on animal image classification and visual question answering.