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DeepFall -- Non-invasive Fall Detection with Deep Spatio-Temporal Convolutional Autoencoders

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Human falls rarely occur; however, detecting falls is very important from the health and safety perspective. Due to the rarity of falls, it is difficult to employ supervised classification techniques to detect them. Moreover, in these highly skewed situations it is also difficult to extract domain specific features to identify falls. In this paper, we present a novel framework, \textit{DeepFall}, which formulates the fall detection problem as an anomaly detection problem. The \textit{DeepFall} framework presents the novel use of deep spatio-temporal convolutional autoencoders to learn spatial and temporal features from normal activities using non-invasive sensing modalities. We also present a new anomaly scoring method that combines the reconstruction score of frames across a video sequences to detect unseen falls. We tested the \textit{DeepFall} framework on three publicly available datasets collected through non-invasive sensing modalities, thermal camera and depth cameras and show superior results in comparison to traditional autoencoder and convolutional autoencoder methods to identify unseen falls.


EvAn: Neuromorphic Event-based Anomaly Detection

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Abstract--Event-based cameras are bio-inspired novel sensors that asynchronously record changes in illumination in the form of events, thus resulting in significant advantages over conventional cameras in terms of low power utilization, high dynamic range, and no motion blur. Moreover, such cameras, by design, encode only the relative motion between the scene and the sensor (and not the static background) to yield a very sparse data structure, which can be utilized for various motion analytics tasks. We propose to model the motion dynamics in the event domain with dual discriminator conditional Generative adversarial Network (cGAN) built on state-of-the-art architectures. T o adapt event data for using as input to cGAN, we also put forward a deep learning solution to learn a novel representation of event data, which retains the sparsity of the data as well as encode the temporal information readily available from these sensors. Since there is no existing dataset for anomaly detection in event domain, we also provide an anomaly detection event dataset with an exhaustive set of anomalies. Index Terms --Neuromorphic Camera, Event data, Anomaly Detection, Generative Adversarial Network.null 1 I NTRODUCTION This paper focusses on anomaly detection using bio-inspired event-based cameras that register pixel-wise changes in brightness asynchronously in an efficient manner, which is radically different from how a conventional camera works. The asynchronous principle of operation endows event cameras [9] [10] [36] [41] to capture high-speed motions (with temporal resolution in the order of µs), high dynamic range ( 140 db) and sparse data. These low latency sensors have paved way to develop agile robotic applications [1], which was not feasible with conventional cameras.


TAnoGAN: Time Series Anomaly Detection with Generative Adversarial Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Anomaly detection in time series data is a significant problem faced in many application areas such as manufacturing, medical imaging and cyber-security. Recently, Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) have gained attention for generation and anomaly detection in image domain. In this paper, we propose a novel GAN-based unsupervised method called TAnoGan for detecting anomalies in time series when a small number of data points are available. We evaluate TAnoGan with 46 real-world time series datasets that cover a variety of domains. Extensive experimental results show that TAnoGan performs better than traditional and neural network models.


Detecting abnormalities in resting-state dynamics: An unsupervised learning approach

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Much of the research in this direction has aimed at identifying connectivity based biomarkers, restricting the analysis to so-called "static" functional connectivity measures that quantify the average degree of synchrony between brain regions. For e.g., machine learning based strategies have been used with static connectivity measures to parcellate the brain into functional networks, and extract individual-level predictions about cognitive state or clinical condition [2]. In recent years, there has been a surge in the study of the temporal dynamics of rsfMRI data, offering a complementary perspective on the functional connectome and how it is altered in disease, development, and aging [14]. However, to our knowledge, there has been a dearth of machine learning applications to dynamic rsfMRI analysis. Thanks to large-scale datasets, modern machine learning methods have fueled significant progress in computer vision. Compared to natural vision applications, however, medical imaging poses a unique set of challenges. Data, particularly labeled data, are often scarce in medical imaging applications. This makes data-hungry methods such as supervised CNNs possibly less useful. One potential approach to tackle the limited sample size issue is to exploit unsupervised arXiv:1908.06168v1


iSeeBetter: Spatio-temporal video super-resolution using recurrent generative back-projection networks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recently, learning-based models have enhanced the performance of single-image super-resolution (SISR). However, applying SISR successively to each video frame leads to a lack of temporal coherency. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) outperform traditional approaches in terms of image quality metrics such as peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and structural similarity (SSIM). However, generative adversarial networks (GANs) offer a competitive advantage by being able to mitigate the issue of a lack of finer texture details, usually seen with CNNs when super-resolving at large upscaling factors. We present iSeeBetter, a novel GAN-based spatio-temporal approach to video super-resolution (VSR) that renders temporally consistent super-resolution videos. iSeeBetter extracts spatial and temporal information from the current and neighboring frames using the concept of recurrent back-projection networks as its generator. Furthermore, to improve the "naturality" of the super-resolved image while eliminating artifacts seen with traditional algorithms, we utilize the discriminator from super-resolution generative adversarial network (SRGAN). Although mean squared error (MSE) as a primary loss-minimization objective improves PSNR/SSIM, these metrics may not capture fine details in the image resulting in misrepresentation of perceptual quality. To address this, we use a four-fold (MSE, perceptual, adversarial, and total-variation (TV)) loss function. Our results demonstrate that iSeeBetter offers superior VSR fidelity and surpasses state-of-the-art performance.