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DeepFall -- Non-invasive Fall Detection with Deep Spatio-Temporal Convolutional Autoencoders

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Human falls rarely occur; however, detecting falls is very important from the health and safety perspective. Due to the rarity of falls, it is difficult to employ supervised classification techniques to detect them. Moreover, in these highly skewed situations it is also difficult to extract domain specific features to identify falls. In this paper, we present a novel framework, \textit{DeepFall}, which formulates the fall detection problem as an anomaly detection problem. The \textit{DeepFall} framework presents the novel use of deep spatio-temporal convolutional autoencoders to learn spatial and temporal features from normal activities using non-invasive sensing modalities. We also present a new anomaly scoring method that combines the reconstruction score of frames across a video sequences to detect unseen falls. We tested the \textit{DeepFall} framework on three publicly available datasets collected through non-invasive sensing modalities, thermal camera and depth cameras and show superior results in comparison to traditional autoencoder and convolutional autoencoder methods to identify unseen falls.


Weakly-supervised Deep Anomaly Detection with Pairwise Relation Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper studies a rarely explored but critical anomaly detection problem: weakly-supervised anomaly detection with limited labeled anomalies and a large unlabeled data set. This problem is very important because it (i) enables anomaly-informed modeling which helps identify anomalies of interests and address the notorious high false positives in unsupervised anomaly detection, and (ii) eliminates the reliance on large-scale and complete labeled anomaly data in fully-supervised settings. However, the problem is especially challenging since we have only limited labeled data for a single class, and moreover, the seen anomalies often cannot cover all types of anomalies (i.e., unseen anomalies). We address this problem by formulating the problem as a pairwise relation learning task. Particularly, our approach defines a two-stream ordinal regression network to learn the relation of randomly selected instance pairs, i.e., whether the instance pair contains labeled anomalies or just unlabeled data instances. The resulting model leverages both the labeled and unlabeled data to effectively augment the data and learn generalized representations of both normality and abnormality. Extensive empirical results show that our approach (i) significantly outperforms state-of-the-art competing methods in detecting both seen and unseen anomalies and (ii) is substantially more data-efficient. Introduction Anomaly detection aims at identifying exceptional data instances that have a significant deviation from the majority of data instances, which can offer important insights into broad applications, such as identifying fraudulent transactions or insider trading, detecting network intrusions, and early detection of diseases.


A loss framework for calibrated anomaly detection

Neural Information Processing Systems

Given samples from a probability distribution, anomaly detection is the problem of determining if a given point lies in a low-density region. This paper concerns calibrated anomaly detection, which is the practically relevant extension where we additionally wish to produce a confidence score for a point being anomalous. Building on a classification framework for anomaly detection, we show how minimisation of a suitably modified proper loss produces density estimates only for anomalous instances. We then show how to incorporate quantile control by relating our objective to a generalised version of the pinball loss. Finally, we show how to efficiently optimise the objective with kernelised scorer, by leveraging a recent result from the point process literature.


MAD-GAN: Multivariate Anomaly Detection for Time Series Data with Generative Adversarial Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The prevalence of networked sensors and actuators in many real-world systems such as smart buildings, factories, power plants, and data centers generate substantial amounts of multivariate time series data for these systems. The rich sensor data can be continuously monitored for intrusion events through anomaly detection. However, conventional threshold-based anomaly detection methods are inadequate due to the dynamic complexities of these systems, while supervised machine learning methods are unable to exploit the large amounts of data due to the lack of labeled data. On the other hand, current unsupervised machine learning approaches have not fully exploited the spatial-temporal correlation and other dependencies amongst the multiple variables (sensors/actuators) in the system for detecting anomalies. In this work, we propose an unsupervised multivariate anomaly detection method based on Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). Instead of treating each data stream independently, our proposed MAD-GAN framework considers the entire variable set concurrently to capture the latent interactions amongst the variables. We also fully exploit both the generator and discriminator produced by the GAN, using a novel anomaly score called DR-score to detect anomalies by discrimination and reconstruction. We have tested our proposed MAD-GAN using two recent datasets collected from real-world CPS: the Secure Water Treatment (SWaT) and the Water Distribution (WADI) datasets. Our experimental results showed that the proposed MAD-GAN is effective in reporting anomalies caused by various cyber-intrusions compared in these complex real-world systems.