Score-based generative models and diffusion probabilistic models have been successful at generating high-quality samples in continuous domains such as images and audio. However, due to their Langevin-inspired sampling mechanisms, their application to discrete and sequential data has been limited. In this work, we present a technique for training diffusion models on sequential data by parameterizing the discrete domain in the continuous latent space of a pre-trained variational autoencoder. Our method is non-autoregressive and learns to generate sequences of latent embeddings through the reverse process and offers parallel generation with a constant number of iterative refinement steps. We apply this technique to modeling symbolic music and show strong unconditional generation and post-hoc conditional infilling results compared to autoregressive language models operating over the same continuous embeddings.
We introduce Jukebox, a model that generates music with singing in the raw audio domain. We tackle the long context of raw audio using a multi-scale VQ-VAE to compress it to discrete codes, and modeling those using autoregressive Transformers. We show that the combined model at scale can generate high-fidelity and diverse songs with coherence up to multiple minutes. We can condition on artist and genre to steer the musical and vocal style, and on unaligned lyrics to make the singing more controllable. We are releasing thousands of non cherry-picked samples at https://jukebox.openai.com, along with model weights and code at https://github.com/openai/jukebox
Recent advances in deep learning have expanded possibilities to generate music, but generating a customizable full piece of music with consistent long-term structure remains a challenge. This paper introduces MusicFrameworks, a hierarchical music structure representation and a multi-step generative process to create a full-length melody guided by long-term repetitive structure, chord, melodic contour, and rhythm constraints. We first organize the full melody with section and phrase-level structure. To generate melody in each phrase, we generate rhythm and basic melody using two separate transformer-based networks, and then generate the melody conditioned on the basic melody, rhythm and chords in an auto-regressive manner. By factoring music generation into sub-problems, our approach allows simpler models and requires less data. To customize or add variety, one can alter chords, basic melody, and rhythm structure in the music frameworks, letting our networks generate the melody accordingly. Additionally, we introduce new features to encode musical positional information, rhythm patterns, and melodic contours based on musical domain knowledge. A listening test reveals that melodies generated by our method are rated as good as or better than human-composed music in the POP909 dataset about half the time.
Generating musical audio directly with neural networks is notoriously difficult because it requires coherently modeling structure at many different timescales. Fortunately, most music is also highly structured and can be represented as discrete note events played on musical instruments. Herein, we show that by using notes as an intermediate representation, we can train a suite of models capable of transcribing, composing, and synthesizing audio waveforms with coherent musical structure on timescales spanning six orders of magnitude ( 0.1 ms to 100 s), a process we call Wave2Midi2Wave. This large advance in the state of the art is enabled by our release of the new MAESTRO (MIDI and Audio Edited for Synchronous TRacks and Organization) dataset, composed of over 172 hours of virtuosic piano performances captured with fine alignment ( 3 ms) between note labels and audio waveforms. The networks and the dataset together present a promising approach toward creating new expressive and interpretable neural models of music. Since the beginning of the recent wave of deep learning research, there have been many attempts to create generative models of expressive musical audio de novo. These models would ideally generate audio that is both musically and sonically realistic to the point of being indistinguishable to a listener from music composed and performed by humans. However, modeling music has proven extremely difficult due to dependencies across the wide range of timescales that give rise to the characteristics of pitch and timbre (short-term) as well as those of rhythm (medium-term) and song structure (long-term). On the other hand, much of music has a large hierarchy of discrete structure embedded in its generative process: a composer creates songs, sections, and notes, and a performer realizes those notes with discrete events on their instrument, creating sound.
Analogy is a key solution to automated music generation, featured by its ability to generate both natural and creative pieces based on only a few examples. In general, an analogy is made by partially transferring the music abstractions, i.e., high-level representations and their relationships, from one piece to another; however, this procedure requires disentangling music representations, which takes little effort for musicians but is non-trivial for computers. Three sub-problems arise: extracting latent representations from the observation, disentangling the representations so that each part has a unique semantic interpretation, and mapping the latent representations back to actual music. An explicitly-constrained conditional variational auto-encoder (EC2-VAE) is proposed as a unified solution to all three sub-problems. In this study, we focus on disentangling the pitch and rhythm representations of 8-beat music clips conditioned on chords. In producing music analogies, this model helps us to realize the imaginary situation of "what if" a piece is composed using a different pitch contour, rhythm pattern, chord progression etc., by borrowing the representations from other pieces. Finally, we validate the proposed disentanglement method using objective measurements and evaluate the analogy examples by a subjective study.