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A survey of automatic de-identification of longitudinal clinical narratives

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Use of medical data, also known as electronic health records, in research helps develop and advance medical science. However, protecting patient confidentiality and identity while using medical data for analysis is crucial. Medical data can be in the form of tabular structures (i.e. tables), free-form narratives, and images. This study focuses on medical data in the free form longitudinal text. De-identification of electronic health records provides the opportunity to use such data for research without it affecting patient privacy, and avoids the need for individual patient consent. In recent years there is increasing interest in developing an accurate, robust and adaptable automatic de-identification system for electronic health records. This is mainly due to the dilemma between the availability of an abundance of health data, and the inability to use such data in research due to legal and ethical restrictions. De-identification tracks in competitions such as the 2014 i2b2 UTHealth and the 2016 CEGS N-GRID shared tasks have provided a great platform to advance this area. The primary reasons for this include the open source nature of the dataset and the fact that raw psychiatric data were used for 2016 competitions. This study focuses on noticeable trend changes in the techniques used in the development of automatic de-identification for longitudinal clinical narratives. More specifically, the shift from using conditional random fields (CRF) based systems only or rules (regular expressions, dictionary or combinations) based systems only, to hybrid models (combining CRF and rules), and more recently to deep learning based systems. We review the literature and results that arose from the 2014 and the 2016 competitions and discuss the outcomes of these systems. We also provide a list of research questions that emerged from this survey.


Prince's last shows: A view from the front row

Los Angeles Times

During Prince's second-to-last concert, the early show in Atlanta on April 14, "his voice was perfection" -- said a photographer who was seeing him for the seventh time and found herself in the right place at the right time to snap a photo she knew she shouldn't be taking. "I wasn't going to share it," said Nashville photographer Aimee Stubbs, 42, who had a third-row seat but found herself standing pressed up against center stage as the show was coming to a close. He was so perfect that night." He played "Linus and Lucy" from "A Charlie Brown Christmas" and David Bowie's "Heroes," she said by phone from Nashville on Friday, "and he took his songs and made them like I've never heard them." As for his health, "there were no indications that he wasn't feeling well," said Stubbs, who made the drive to Atlanta twice after Prince got sick and at the last minute pushed his Feb. 7 shows to the next Thursday.


About 1,000 day-old 'vulnerable' chicks dumped in field

BBC News

About 1,000 "vulnerable" day-old chicks have been abandoned in a field in Lincolnshire, sparking an RSPCA investigation. Officers of the animal welfare charity were called after the chicks were left in a field near Crowland on Friday. Insp Justin Stubbs of the RSPCA said: "I have never seen anything like it; it was just a sea of yellow. And the noise was unbelievable." He said some birds were dead but most "did not appear to be suffering".


Finns Stubb and Katainen Leave Door Open to EU Commission Top Job

U.S. News

I will think it through, see what else could be done in life, and discuss it with my family," Katainen, 46, currently EU Commission vice president, told Reuters on the sidelines of a gathering of his Finnish party, the center-right NCP.


'Westworld' finale: We have questions

Los Angeles Times

"Westworld" went out just as it came in: with guns blazing. And just as the premiere did, it left many viewers scratching their heads. The HBO series concluded its first season with plenty of spectacle and blood, but we've still got many questions that need answers, and a few ideas to consider until Season 2. What really happened to Elsie and Stubbs? For a series that delights in showing the deaths of their characters over and over-- and over and over-- it's suspicious that neither Elsie the programmer (Shannon Woodward) nor Stubbs (the park's head of security played by Luke Hemsworth) received an onscreen death. Instead, both vanished somewhere off in the Westworld wasteland and noticeably absent from the finale.