Kratsios, Anastasis, Hyndman, Cody B.

We introduce a path-dependent geometric framework which generalizes the HJM modeling approach to a wide variety of other asset classes. A machine learning regularization framework is developed with the objective of removing arbitrage opportunities from models within this general framework. The regularization method relies on minimal deformations of a model subject to a path-dependent penalty that detects arbitrage opportunities. We prove that the solution of this regularization problem is independent of the arbitrage-penalty chosen, subject to a fixed information loss functional. In addition to the general properties of the minimal deformation, we also consider several explicit examples. This paper is focused on placing machine learning methods in finance on a sound theoretical basis and the techniques developed to achieve this objective may be of interest in other areas of application.

Geodesic convexity generalizes the notion of (vector space) convexity to nonlinear metric spaces. But unlike convex optimization, geodesically convex (g-convex) optimization is much less developed. In this paper we contribute to the understanding of g-convex optimization by developing iteration complexity analysis for several first-order algorithms on Hadamard manifolds. Specifically, we prove upper bounds for the global complexity of deterministic and stochastic (sub)gradient methods for optimizing smooth and nonsmooth g-convex functions, both with and without strong g-convexity. Our analysis also reveals how the manifold geometry, especially \emph{sectional curvature}, impacts convergence rates. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first to provide global complexity analysis for first-order algorithms for general g-convex optimization.

Zhang, Miaomiao, Fletcher, Tom

Principal geodesic analysis (PGA) is a generalization of principal component analysis (PCA) for dimensionality reduction of data on a Riemannian manifold. Currently PGA is defined as a geometric fit to the data, rather than as a probabilistic model. Inspired by probabilistic PCA, we present a latent variable model for PGA that provides a probabilistic framework for factor analysis on manifolds. To compute maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in our model, we develop a Monte Carlo Expectation Maximization algorithm, where the expectation is approximated by Hamiltonian Monte Carlo sampling of the latent variables. We demonstrate the ability of our method to recover the ground truth parameters in simulated sphere data, as well as its effectiveness in analyzing shape variability of a corpus callosum data set from human brain images.

Arvanitidis, Georgios, Hansen, Lars K., Hauberg, Søren

The multivariate normal density is a monotonic function of the distance to the mean, and its ellipsoidal shape is due to the underlying Euclidean metric. We suggest to replace this metric with a locally adaptive, smoothly changing (Riemannian) metric that favors regions of high local density. The resulting locally adaptive normal distribution (LAND) is a generalization of the normal distribution to the "manifold" setting, where data is assumed to lie near a potentially low-dimensional manifold embedded in R^D. The LAND is parametric, depending only on a mean and a covariance, and is the maximum entropy distribution under the given metric. The underlying metric is, however, non-parametric. We develop a maximum likelihood algorithm to infer the distribution parameters that relies on a combination of gradient descent and Monte Carlo integration. We further extend the LAND to mixture models, and provide the corresponding EM algorithm. We demonstrate the efficiency of the LAND to fit non-trivial probability distributions over both synthetic data, and EEG measurements of human sleep.

Cruceru, Calin, Bécigneul, Gary, Ganea, Octavian-Eugen

Representing graphs as sets of node embeddings in certain curved Riemannian manifolds has recently gained momentum in machine learning due to their desirable geometric inductive biases, e.g., hierarchical structures benefit from hyperbolic geometry. However, going beyond embedding spaces of constant sectional curvature, while potentially more representationally powerful, proves to be challenging as one can easily lose the appeal of computationally tractable tools such as geodesic distances or Riemannian gradients. Here, we explore computationally efficient matrix manifolds, showcasing how to learn and optimize graph embeddings in these Riemannian spaces. Empirically, we demonstrate consistent improvements over Euclidean geometry while often outperforming hyperbolic and elliptical embeddings based on various metrics that capture different graph properties. Our results serve as new evidence for the benefits of non-Euclidean embeddings in machine learning pipelines.