We consider the problem of modeling discrete-valued vector time series data using extensions of Chow-Liu tree models to capture both dependencies across time and dependencies across variables. Conditional Chow-Liu tree models are introduced, as an extension to standard Chow-Liu trees, for modeling conditional rather than joint densities. We describe learning algorithms for such models and show how they can be used to learn parsimonious representations for the output distributions in hidden Markov models. These models are applied to the important problem of simulating and forecasting daily precipitation occurrence for networks of rain stations. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the models, we compare their performance versus a number of alternatives using historical precipitation data from Southwestern Australia and the Western United States. We illustrate how the structure and parameters of the models can be used to provide an improved meteorological interpretation of such data.
Peter M Williams School of Cognitive and Computing Sciences University of Sussex Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH, UK. email: email@example.com Abstract This paper presents a new approach to the problem of modelling daily rainfall using neural networks. We first model the conditional distributions ofrainfall amounts, in such a way that the model itself determines the order of the process, and the time-dependent shape and scale of the conditional distributions. After integrating over particular weather patterns, weare able to extract seasonal variations and long-term trends. 1 Introduction Analysis of rainfall data is important for many agricultural, ecological and engineering activities. Design of irrigation and drainage systems, for instance, needs to take account not only of mean expected rainfall, but also of rainfall volatility. Estimates of crop yields also depend on the distribution of rainfall during the growing season, as well as on the overall amount.
Products of Hidden Markov Models(PoHMMs) are an interesting class of generative models which have received little attention since their introduction. This maybe in part due to their more computationally expensive gradient-based learning algorithm,and the intractability of computing the log likelihood of sequences under the model. In this paper, we demonstrate how the partition function can be estimated reliably via Annealed Importance Sampling. We perform experiments using contrastive divergence learning on rainfall data and data captured from pairs of people dancing. Our results suggest that advances in learning and evaluation for undirected graphical models and recent increases in available computing power make PoHMMs worth considering for complex time-series modeling tasks.
Non-homogeneous hidden Markov models (NHHMM) are a subclass of dependent mixture models used for semi-supervised learning, where both transition probabilities between the latent states and mean parameter of the probability distribution of the responses (for a given state) depend on the set of $p$ covariates. A priori we do not know which (and how) covariates influence the transition probabilities and the mean parameters. This induces a complex combinatorial optimization problem for model selection with $4^p$ potential configurations. To address the problem, in this article we propose an adaptive (A) simulated annealing (SA) expectation maximization (EM) algorithm (ASA-EM) for joint optimization of models and their parameters with respect to a criterion of interest.