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Spectral Norm of Random Kernel Matrices with Applications to Privacy

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Kernel methods are an extremely popular set of techniques used for many important machine learning and data analysis applications. In addition to having good practical performances, these methods are supported by a well-developed theory. Kernel methods use an implicit mapping of the input data into a high dimensional feature space defined by a kernel function, i.e., a function returning the inner product between the images of two data points in the feature space. Central to any kernel method is the kernel matrix, which is built by evaluating the kernel function on a given sample dataset. In this paper, we initiate the study of non-asymptotic spectral theory of random kernel matrices. These are n x n random matrices whose (i,j)th entry is obtained by evaluating the kernel function on $x_i$ and $x_j$, where $x_1,...,x_n$ are a set of n independent random high-dimensional vectors. Our main contribution is to obtain tight upper bounds on the spectral norm (largest eigenvalue) of random kernel matrices constructed by commonly used kernel functions based on polynomials and Gaussian radial basis. As an application of these results, we provide lower bounds on the distortion needed for releasing the coefficients of kernel ridge regression under attribute privacy, a general privacy notion which captures a large class of privacy definitions. Kernel ridge regression is standard method for performing non-parametric regression that regularly outperforms traditional regression approaches in various domains. Our privacy distortion lower bounds are the first for any kernel technique, and our analysis assumes realistic scenarios for the input, unlike all previous lower bounds for other release problems which only hold under very restrictive input settings.


Xu

AAAI Conferences

Nystrom approximation is an effective approach to accelerate the computation of kernel matrices in many kernel methods. In this paper, we consider the Nystrom approximation for sparse kernel methods. Instead of relying on the low-rank assumption of the original kernels, which sometimes does not hold in some applications, we take advantage of the restricted eigenvalue condition, which has been proved to be robust for sparse kernel methods. Based on the restricted eigenvalue condition, we have provided not only the approximation bound for the original kernel matrix but also the recovery bound for the sparse solutions of sparse kernel regression. In addition to the theoretical analysis, we also demonstrate the good performance of the Nystrom approximation for sparse kernel regression on real world data sets.


Multiple Operator-valued Kernel Learning

Neural Information Processing Systems

Positive definite operator-valued kernels generalize the well-known notion of reproducing kernels, and are naturally adapted to multi-output learning situations. This paper addresses the problem of learning a finite linear combination of infinite-dimensional operator-valued kernels which are suitable for extending functional data analysis methods to nonlinear contexts. We study this problem in the case of kernel ridge regression for functional responses with an lr-norm constraint on the combination coefficients. The resulting optimization problem is more involved than those of multiple scalar-valued kernel learning since operator-valued kernels pose more technical and theoretical issues. We propose a multiple operator-valued kernel learning algorithm based on solving a system of linear operator equations by using a block coordinate-descent procedure. We experimentally validate our approach on a functional regression task in the context of finger movement prediction in brain-computer interfaces.


Fair Kernel Regression via Fair Feature Embedding in Kernel Space

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In recent years, there have been significant efforts on mitigating unethical demographic biases in machine learning methods. However, very little is done for kernel methods. In this paper, we propose a new fair kernel regression method via fair feature embedding (FKR-F$^2$E) in kernel space. Motivated by prior works on feature selection in kernel space and feature processing for fair machine learning, we propose to learn fair feature embedding functions that minimize demographic discrepancy of feature distributions in kernel space. Compared to the state-of-the-art fair kernel regression method and several baseline methods, we show FKR-F$^2$E achieves significantly lower prediction disparity across three real-world data sets.


Kernel Selection for Modal Linear Regression: Optimal Kernel and IRLS Algorithm

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Abstract--Modal linear regression (MLR) is a method for obtaining a conditional mode predictor as a linear model. We study kernel selection for MLR from two perspectives: "which kernel achieves smaller error?" and "which kernel is computationally efficient?". First, we show that a Biweight kernel is optimal in the sense of minimizing an asymptotic mean squared error of a resulting MLR parameter. This result is derived from our refined analysis of an asymptotic statistical behavior of MLR. Secondly, we provide a kernel class for which iteratively reweighted least-squares algorithm (IRLS) is guaranteed to converge, and especially prove that IRLS with an Epanechnikov kernel terminates in a finite number of iterations. Simulation studies empirically verified that using a Biweight kernel provides good estimation accuracy and that using an Epanechnikov kernel is computationally efficient. Our results improve MLR of which existing studies often stick to a Gaussian kernel and modal EM algorithm specialized for it, by providing guidelines of kernel selection.