Most existing image denoising approaches assumed the noise to be homogeneous white Gaussian distributed with known intensity. However, in real noisy images, the noise models are usually unknown beforehand and can be much more complex. This paper addresses this problem and proposes a novel blind image denoising algorithm to recover the clean image from noisy one with the unknown noise model. To model the empirical noise of an image, our method introduces the mixture of Gaussian distribution, which is flexible enough to approximate different continuous distributions. The problem of blind image denoising is reformulated as a learning problem. The procedure is to first build a two-layer structural model for noisy patches and consider the clean ones as latent variable. To control the complexity of the noisy patch model, this work proposes a novel Bayesian nonparametric prior called "Dependent Dirichlet Process Tree" to build the model. Then, this study derives a variational inference algorithm to estimate model parameters and recover clean patches. We apply our method on synthesis and real noisy images with different noise models. Comparing with previous approaches, ours achieves better performance. The experimental results indicate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm to cope with practical image denoising tasks.
Simple Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs) learned from pixels of natural image patches have been recently shown to be surprisingly strong performers in modeling the statistics of natural images. Here we provide an in depth analysis of this simple yet rich model. We show that such a GMM model is able to compete with even the most successful models of natural images in log likelihood scores, denoising performance and sample quality. We provide an analysis of what such a model learns from natural images as a function of number of mixture components - including covariance structure, contrast variation and intricate structures such as textures, boundaries and more. Finally, we show that the salient properties of the GMM learned from natural images can be derived from a simplified Dead Leaves model which explicitly models occlusion, explaining its surprising success relative to other models. 1 GMMs and natural image statistics models Many models for the statistics of natural image patches have been suggested in recent years.
Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is a popular method for extracting independent featuresfrom visual data. However, as a fundamentally linear technique, there is always nonlinear residual redundancy that is not captured by ICA. Hence there have been many attempts to try to create a hierarchical version of ICA, but so far none of the approaches have a natural way to apply them more than once. Here we show that there is a relatively simple technique that transforms the absolute values ofthe outputs of a previous application of ICA into a normal distribution, to which ICA maybe applied again. This results in a recursive ICA algorithm that may be applied any number of times in order to extract higher order structure from previous layers.
Bandpass filtering, orientation selectivity, and contrast gain control are prominent features of sensory coding at the level of V1 simple cells. While the effect of bandpass filtering and orientation selectivity can be assessed within a linear model, contrast gain control is an inherently nonlinear computation. Here we employ the class of $L_p$ elliptically contoured distributions to investigate the extent to which the two features---orientation selectivity and contrast gain control---are suited to model the statistics of natural images. Within this framework we find that contrast gain control can play a significant role for the removal of redundancies in natural images. Orientation selectivity, in contrast, has only a very limited potential for redundancy reduction.
We present a hierarchical Bayesian model for learning efficient codes of higher-order structure in natural images. The model, a nonlinear generalization ofindependent component analysis, replaces the standard assumption of independence for the joint distribution of coefficients with a distribution that is adapted to the variance structure of the coefficients of an efficient image basis. This offers a novel description of higherorder imagestructure and provides a way to learn coarse-coded, sparsedistributed representationsof abstract image properties such as object location, scale, and texture.