Giriraj, Rohan, Thomas, Sinnu Susan

In recent years, causal modelling has been used widely to improve generalization and to provide interpretability in machine learning models. To determine cause-effect relationships in the absence of a randomized trial, we can model causal systems with counterfactuals and interventions given enough domain knowledge. However, there are several cases where domain knowledge is almost absent and the only recourse is using a statistical method to estimate causal relationships. While there have been several works done in estimating causal relationships in unstructured data, we are yet to find a well-defined framework for estimating causal relationships in Knowledge Graphs (KG). It is commonly used to provide a semantic framework for data with complex inter-domain relationships. In this work, we define a hybrid approach that allows us to discover cause-effect relationships in KG. The proposed approach is based around the finding of the instantaneous causal structure of a non-experimental matrix using a non-Gaussian model, i.e; finding the causal ordering of the variables in a non-Gaussian setting. The non-experimental matrix is a low-dimensional tensor projection obtained by decomposing the adjacency tensor of a KG. We use two different pre-existing algorithms, one for the causal discovery and the other for decomposing the KG and combining them to get the causal structure in a KG.

Shimizu, Shohei, Hyvarinen, Aapo, Kawahara, Yoshinobu

Structural equation models and Bayesian networks have been widely used to analyze causal relations between continuous variables. In such frameworks, linear acyclic models are typically used to model the datagenerating process of variables. Recently, it was shown that use of non-Gaussianity identifies a causal ordering of variables in a linear acyclic model without using any prior knowledge on the network structure, which is not the case with conventional methods. However, existing estimation methods are based on iterative search algorithms and may not converge to a correct solution in a finite number of steps. In this paper, we propose a new direct method to estimate a causal ordering based on non-Gaussianity. In contrast to the previous methods, our algorithm requires no algorithmic parameters and is guaranteed to converge to the right solution within a small fixed number of steps if the data strictly follows the model.

Shimizu, Shohei, Inazumi, Takanori, Sogawa, Yasuhiro, Hyvarinen, Aapo, Kawahara, Yoshinobu, Washio, Takashi, Hoyer, Patrik O., Bollen, Kenneth

Structural equation models and Bayesian networks have been widely used to analyze causal relations between continuous variables. In such frameworks, linear acyclic models are typically used to model the data-generating process of variables. Recently, it was shown that use of non-Gaussianity identifies the full structure of a linear acyclic model, i.e., a causal ordering of variables and their connection strengths, without using any prior knowledge on the network structure, which is not the case with conventional methods. However, existing estimation methods are based on iterative search algorithms and may not converge to a correct solution in a finite number of steps. In this paper, we propose a new direct method to estimate a causal ordering and connection strengths based on non-Gaussianity. In contrast to the previous methods, our algorithm requires no algorithmic parameters and is guaranteed to converge to the right solution within a small fixed number of steps if the data strictly follows the model.

Maeda, Takashi Nicholas, Shimizu, Shohei

Causal discovery from data affected by latent confounders is an important and difficult challenge. Causal functional model-based approaches have not been used to present variables whose relationships are affected by latent confounders, while some constraint-based methods can present them. This paper proposes a causal functional model-based method called repetitive causal discovery (RCD) to discover the causal structure of observed variables affected by latent confounders. RCD repeats inferring the causal directions between a small number of observed variables and determines whether the relationships are affected by latent confounders. RCD finally produces a causal graph where a bi-directed arrow indicates the pair of variables that have the same latent confounders, and a directed arrow indicates the causal direction of a pair of variables that are not affected by the same latent confounder. The results of experimental validation using simulated data and real-world data confirmed that RCD is effective in identifying latent confounders and causal directions between observed variables.

A linear non-Gaussian structural equation model called LiNGAM is an identifiable model for exploratory causal analysis. Previous methods estimate a causal ordering of variables and their connection strengths based on a single dataset. However, in many application domains, data are obtained under different conditions, that is, multiple datasets are obtained rather than a single dataset. In this paper, we present a new method to jointly estimate multiple LiNGAMs under the assumption that the models share a causal ordering but may have different connection strengths and differently distributed variables. In simulations, the new method estimates the models more accurately than estimating them separately.