Description logic Knowledge and Action Bases (KAB) are a mechanism for providing both a semantically rich representation of the information on the domain of interest in terms of a description logic knowledge base and actions to change such information over time, possibly introducing new objects. We resort to a variant of DL-Lite where the unique name assumption is not enforced and where equality between objects may be asserted and inferred. Actions are specified as sets of conditional effects, where conditions are based on epistemic queries over the knowledge base (TBox and ABox), and effects are expressed in terms of new ABoxes. In this setting, we address verification of temporal properties expressed in a variant of first-order mu-calculus with quantification across states. Notably, we show decidability of verification, under a suitable restriction inspired by the notion of weak acyclicity in data exchange.
We consider the problem of answering queries about formulas of first-order logic based on background knowledge partially represented explicitly as other formulas, and partially represented as examples independently drawn from a fixed probability distribution. PAC semantics, introduced by Valiant, is one rigorous, general proposal for learning to reason in formal languages: although weaker than classical entailment, it allows for a powerful model theoretic framework for answering queries while requiring minimal assumptions about the form of the distribution in question. To date, however, the most significant limitation of that approach, and more generally most machine learning approaches with robustness guarantees, is that the logical language is ultimately essentially propositional, with finitely many atoms. Indeed, the theoretical findings on the learning of relational theories in such generality have been resoundingly negative. This is despite the fact that first-order logic is widely argued to be most appropriate for representing human knowledge.
The paper presents an extension of temporal epistemic logic that adds "strategic" agents in a way that allows standard epistemic operators to capture what agents could deduce from knowledge of the strategies of some subset of the set of agents. A number of examples are presented to demonstrate the broad applicability of the framework, including reasoning about implementations of knowledge-based programs, game theoretic solution concepts and notions from computer security. It is shown that notions from several variants of alternating temporal epistemic logic can be expressed. The framework is shown to have a decidable model checking problem.
Knowledge graph reasoning, which aims at predicting missing facts through reasoning with observed facts, is critical for many applications. Such a problem has been widely explored by traditional logic rule-based approaches and recent knowledge graph embedding methods. A principled logic rule-based approach is the Markov Logic Network (MLN), which is able to leverage domain knowledge with first-order logic and meanwhile handle uncertainty. However, the inference in MLNs is usually very difficult due to the complicated graph structures. TransE, DistMult) learn effective entity and relation embeddings for reasoning, which are much more effective and efficient.