The recent successes of AI have captured the wildest imagination of both the scientific communities and the general public. Robotics and AI amplify human potentials, increase productivity and are moving from simple reasoning towards human-like cognitive abilities. Current AI technologies are used in a set area of applications, ranging from healthcare, manufacturing, transport, energy, to financial services, banking, advertising, management consulting and government agencies. The global AI market is around 260 billion USD in 2016 and it is estimated to exceed 3 trillion by 2024. To understand the impact of AI, it is important to draw lessons from it's past successes and failures and this white paper provides a comprehensive explanation of the evolution of AI, its current status and future directions.
AI researchers are interested in building intelligent machines that can interact with them as they interact with each other. Science fiction writers have given us these goals in the form of HAL in 2001: A Space Odyssey and Commander Data in Star Trek: The Next Generation. However, at present, our computers are deaf, dumb, and blind, almost unaware of the environment they are in and of the user who interacts with them. In this article, I present the current state of the art in machines that can see people, recognize them, determine their gaze, understand their facial expressions and hand gestures, and interpret their activities. I believe that by building machines with such abilities for perceiving, people will take us one step closer to building HAL and Commander Data.
One of the ambitions of artificial intelligence is to root artificial intelligence deeply in basic science while developing brain-inspired artificial intelligence platforms that will promote new scientific discoveries. The challenges are essential to push artificial intelligence theory and applied technologies research forward. This paper presents the grand challenges of artificial intelligence research for the next 20 years which include:~(i) to explore the working mechanism of the human brain on the basis of understanding brain science, neuroscience, cognitive science, psychology and data science; (ii) how is the electrical signal transmitted by the human brain? What is the coordination mechanism between brain neural electrical signals and human activities? (iii)~to root brain-computer interface~(BCI) and brain-muscle interface~(BMI) technologies deeply in science on human behaviour; (iv)~making research on knowledge-driven visual commonsense reasoning~(VCR), develop a new inference engine for cognitive network recognition~(CNR); (v)~to develop high-precision, multi-modal intelligent perceptrons; (vi)~investigating intelligent reasoning and fast decision-making systems based on knowledge graph~(KG). We believe that the frontier theory innovation of AI, knowledge-driven modeling methodologies for commonsense reasoning, revolutionary innovation and breakthroughs of the novel algorithms and new technologies in AI, and developing responsible AI should be the main research strategies of AI scientists in the future.
Each of these areas already features a significant level of complexity, so the following description of data mining and artificial intelligence applications has necessarily been restricted to an overview. Vehicle development has become a largely virtual process that is now the accepted state of the art for all manufacturers. CAD models and simulations (typically of physical processes, such as mechanics, flow, acoustics, vibration, etc., on the basis of finite element models) are used extensively in all stages of the development process. The subject of optimization (often with the use of evolution strategies or genetic algorithms and related methods) is usually less well covered, even though it is precisely here in the development process that it can frequently yield impressive results. Multi-disciplinary optimization, in which multiple development disciplines (such as occupant safety and noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH)) are combined and optimized simultaneously, is still rarely used in many cases due to supposedly excessive computation time requirements.
The word "deep" in "deep learning" refers to the number of layers through which the data is transformed. More precisely, deep learning systems have a substantial credit assignment path (CAP) depth. The CAP is the chain of transformations from input to output. CAPs describe potentially causal connections between input and output. For a feedforward neural network, the depth of the CAPs is that of the network and is the number of hidden layers plus one (as the output layer is also parameterized).