Spatio-temporal Spike and Slab Priors for Multiple Measurement Vector Problems Machine Learning

We are interested in solving the multiple measurement vector (MMV) problem for instances, where the underlying sparsity pattern exhibit spatio-temporal structure motivated by the electroencephalogram (EEG) source localization problem. We propose a probabilistic model that takes this structure into account by generalizing the structured spike and slab prior and the associated Expectation Propagation inference scheme. Based on numerical experiments, we demonstrate the viability of the model and the approximate inference scheme.

Bayesian Inference for Structured Spike and Slab Priors

Neural Information Processing Systems

Sparse signal recovery addresses the problem of solving underdetermined linear inverse problems subject to a sparsity constraint. We propose a novel prior formulation, the structured spike and slab prior, which allows to incorporate a priori knowledge of the sparsity pattern by imposing a spatial Gaussian process on the spike and slab probabilities. Thus, prior information on the structure of the sparsity pattern can be encoded using generic covariance functions. Furthermore, we provide a Bayesian inference scheme for the proposed model based on the expectation propagation framework. Using numerical experiments on synthetic data, we demonstrate the benefits of the model.

Spatio-Temporal Structured Sparse Regression with Hierarchical Gaussian Process Priors Machine Learning

This paper introduces a new sparse spatio-temporal structured Gaussian process regression framework for online and offline Bayesian inference. This is the first framework that gives a time-evolving representation of the interdependencies between the components of the sparse signal of interest. A hierarchical Gaussian process describes such structure and the interdependencies are represented via the covariance matrices of the prior distributions. The inference is based on the expectation propagation method and the theoretical derivation of the posterior distribution is provided in the paper. The inference framework is thoroughly evaluated over synthetic, real video and electroencephalography (EEG) data where the spatio-temporal evolving patterns need to be reconstructed with high accuracy. It is shown that it achieves 15% improvement of the F-measure compared with the alternating direction method of multipliers, spatio-temporal sparse Bayesian learning method and one-level Gaussian process model. Additionally, the required memory for the proposed algorithm is less than in the one-level Gaussian process model. This structured sparse regression framework is of broad applicability to source localisation and object detection problems with sparse signals.

Sparse Bayesian structure learning with “dependent relevance determination” priors

Neural Information Processing Systems

In many problem settings, parameter vectors are not merely sparse, but dependent in such a way that non-zero coefficients tend to cluster together. We refer to this form of dependency as “region sparsity”. Classical sparse regression methods, such as the lasso and automatic relevance determination (ARD), model parameters as independent a priori, and therefore do not exploit such dependencies. Here we introduce a hierarchical model for smooth, region-sparse weight vectors and tensors in a linear regression setting. Our approach represents a hierarchical extension of the relevance determination framework, where we add a transformed Gaussian process to model the dependencies between the prior variances of regression weights. We combine this with a structured model of the prior variances of Fourier coefficients, which eliminates unnecessary high frequencies. The resulting prior encourages weights to be region-sparse in two different bases simultaneously. We develop efficient approximate inference methods and show substantial improvements over comparable methods (e.g., group lasso and smooth RVM) for both simulated and real datasets from brain imaging.

Structured Sparse Modelling with Hierarchical GP Machine Learning

In this paper a new Bayesian model for sparse linear regression with a spatio-temporal structure is proposed. It incorporates the structural assumptions based on a hierarchical Gaussian process prior for spike and slab coefficients. We design an inference algorithm based on Expectation Propagation and evaluate the model over the real data.