Federated learning (FL) is a distributed machine learning (ML) technique that enables collaborative training in which devices perform learning using a local dataset while preserving their privacy. This technique ensures privacy, communication efficiency, and resource conservation. Despite these advantages, FL still suffers from several challenges related to reliability (i.e., unreliable participating devices in training), tractability (i.e., a large number of trained models), and anonymity. To address these issues, we propose a secure and trustworthy blockchain framework (SRB-FL) tailored to FL, which uses blockchain features to enable collaborative model training in a fully distributed and trustworthy manner. In particular, we design a secure FL based on the blockchain sharding that ensures data reliability, scalability, and trustworthiness. In addition, we introduce an incentive mechanism to improve the reliability of FL devices using subjective multi-weight logic. The results show that our proposed SRB-FL framework is efficient and scalable, making it a promising and suitable solution for federated learning.
The unprecedented surge of data volume in wireless networks empowered with artificial intelligence (AI) opens up new horizons for providing ubiquitous data-driven intelligent services. Traditional cloud-centric machine learning (ML)-based services are implemented by collecting datasets and training models centrally. However, this conventional training technique encompasses two challenges: (i) high communication and energy cost due to increased data communication, (ii) threatened data privacy by allowing untrusted parties to utilise this information. Recently, in light of these limitations, a new emerging technique, coined as federated learning (FL), arose to bring ML to the edge of wireless networks. FL can extract the benefits of data silos by training a global model in a distributed manner, orchestrated by the FL server. FL exploits both decentralised datasets and computing resources of participating clients to develop a generalised ML model without compromising data privacy. In this article, we introduce a comprehensive survey of the fundamentals and enabling technologies of FL. Moreover, an extensive study is presented detailing various applications of FL in wireless networks and highlighting their challenges and limitations. The efficacy of FL is further explored with emerging prospective beyond fifth generation (B5G) and sixth generation (6G) communication systems. The purpose of this survey is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of FL applications in key wireless technologies that will serve as a foundation to establish a firm understanding of the topic. Lastly, we offer a road forward for future research directions.
With the technological advances in machine learning, effective ways are available to process the huge amount of data generated in real life. However, issues of privacy and scalability will constrain the development of machine learning. Federated learning (FL) can prevent privacy leakage by assigning training tasks to multiple clients, thus separating the central server from the local devices. However, FL still suffers from shortcomings such as single-point-failure and malicious data. The emergence of blockchain provides a secure and efficient solution for the deployment of FL. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive survey of the literature on blockchained FL (BCFL). First, we investigate how blockchain can be applied to federal learning from the perspective of system composition. Then, we analyze the concrete functions of BCFL from the perspective of mechanism design and illustrate what problems blockchain addresses specifically for FL. We also survey the applications of BCFL in reality. Finally, we discuss some challenges and future research directions.
Federated learning (FL) brings collaborative intelligence into industries without centralized training data to accelerate the process of Industry 4.0 on the edge computing level. FL solves the dilemma in which enterprises wish to make the use of data intelligence with security concerns. To accelerate industrial Internet of things with the further leverage of FL, existing achievements on FL are developed from three aspects: 1) define terminologies and elaborate a general framework of FL for accommodating various scenarios; 2) discuss the state-of-the-art of FL on fundamental researches including data partitioning, privacy preservation, model optimization, local model transportation, personalization, motivation mechanism, platform & tools, and benchmark; 3) discuss the impacts of FL from the economic perspective. To attract more attention from industrial academia and practice, a FL-transformed manufacturing paradigm is presented, and future research directions of FL are given and possible immediate applications in Industry 4.0 domain are also proposed.
Recent advances in Federated Learning (FL) have brought large-scale machine learning opportunities for massive distributed clients with performance and data privacy guarantees. However, most current works only focus on the interest of the central controller in FL, and ignore the interests of clients. This may result in unfairness which discourages clients from actively participating in the learning process and damages the sustainability of the whole FL system. Therefore, the topic of ensuring fairness in an FL is attracting a great deal of research interest. In recent years, diverse Fairness-Aware FL (FAFL) approaches have been proposed in an effort to achieve fairness in FL from different viewpoints. However, there is no comprehensive survey which helps readers gain insight into this interdisciplinary field. This paper aims to provide such a survey. By examining the fundamental and simplifying assumptions, as well as the notions of fairness adopted by existing literature in this field, we propose a taxonomy of FAFL approaches covering major steps in FL, including client selection, optimization, contribution evaluation and incentive distribution. In addition, we discuss the main metrics for experimentally evaluating the performance of FAFL approaches, and suggest some promising future research directions.