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Constructive and Toxic Speech Detection for Open-domain Social Media Comments in Vietnamese

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The rise of social media has led to the increasing of comments on online forums. However, there still exists some invalid comments which were not informative for users. Moreover, those comments are also quite toxic and harmful to people. In this paper, we create a dataset for classifying constructive and toxic speech detection, named UIT-ViCTSD (Vietnamese Constructive and Toxic Speech Detection dataset) with 10,000 human-annotated comments. For these tasks, we proposed a system for constructive and toxic speech detection with the state-of-the-art transfer learning model in Vietnamese NLP as PhoBERT. With this system, we achieved 78.59% and 59.40% F1-score for identifying constructive and toxic comments separately. Besides, to have an objective assessment for the dataset, we implement a variety of baseline models as traditional Machine Learning and Deep Neural Network-Based models. With the results, we can solve some problems on the online discussions and develop the framework for identifying constructiveness and toxicity Vietnamese social media comments automatically.


Investigating Bias In Automatic Toxic Comment Detection: An Empirical Study

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

With surge in online platforms, there has been an upsurge in the user engagement on these platforms via comments and reactions. A large portion of such textual comments are abusive, rude and offensive to the audience. With machine learning systems in-place to check such comments coming onto platform, biases present in the training data gets passed onto the classifier leading to discrimination against a set of classes, religion and gender. In this work, we evaluate different classifiers and feature to estimate the bias in these classifiers along with their performance on downstream task of toxicity classification. Results show that improvement in performance of automatic toxic comment detection models is positively correlated to mitigating biases in these models. In our work, LSTM with attention mechanism proved to be a better modelling strategy than a CNN model. Further analysis shows that fasttext embeddings is marginally preferable than glove embeddings on training models for toxicity comment detection. Deeper analysis reveals the findings that such automatic models are particularly biased to specific identity groups even though the model has a high AUC score. Finally, in effort to mitigate bias in toxicity detection models, a multi-task setup trained with auxiliary task of toxicity sub-types proved to be useful leading to upto 0.26% (6% relative) gain in AUC scores.


HateXplain: A Benchmark Dataset for Explainable Hate Speech Detection

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Hate speech is a challenging issue plaguing the online social media. While better models for hate speech detection are continuously being developed, there is little research on the bias and interpretability aspects of hate speech. In this paper, we introduce HateXplain, the first benchmark hate speech dataset covering multiple aspects of the issue. Each post in our dataset is annotated from three different perspectives: the basic, commonly used 3-class classification (i.e., hate, offensive or normal), the target community (i.e., the community that has been the victim of hate speech/offensive speech in the post), and the rationales, i.e., the portions of the post on which their labelling decision (as hate, offensive or normal) is based. We utilize existing state-of-the-art models and observe that even models that perform very well in classification do not score high on explainability metrics like model plausibility and faithfulness. We also observe that models, which utilize the human rationales for training, perform better in reducing unintended bias towards target communities. We have made our code and dataset public at https://github.com/punyajoy/HateXplain


Empirical Analysis of Multi-Task Learning for Reducing Model Bias in Toxic Comment Detection

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Empirical Analysis of Multi-T ask Learning for Reducing Model Bias in T oxic Comment Detection Ameya V aidya, 1 Feng Mai, 2 Y ue Ning 3 1 Bridgewater-Raritan Regional High School 2 School of Business, Stevens Institute of Technology 3 Department of Computer Science, Stevens Institute of Technology ameyav993@gmail.com, Abstract With the recent rise of toxicity in online conversations on social media platforms, using modern machine learning algorithms for toxic comment detection has become a central focus of many online applications. Researchers and companies have developed a variety of shallow and deep learning models to identify toxicity in online conversations, reviews, or comments with mixed successes. However, these existing approaches have learned to incorrectly associate nontoxic comments that have certain trigger-words (e.g. In this paper, we evaluate dozens of state-of-the-art models with the specific focus of reducing model bias towards these commonly-attacked identity groups. We propose a multi-task learning model with an attention layer that jointly learns to predict the toxicity of a comment as well as the identities present in the comments in order to reduce this bias. We then compare our model to an array of shallow and deep-learning models using metrics designed especially to test for unintended model bias within these identity groups. Introduction The identification of potential toxicity within online conversations has always been a significant task for current platform providers. Toxic comments have the unfortunate effect of causing users to leave a discussion or give up sharing their perspective and can give a bad reputation to platforms where these discussions take place. Twitter's CEO reaffirmed that Twitter is still being overrun by spam, abuse, and misinformation. Current research involves investigating common challenges in toxic comment classification (van Aken et al. 2018), identifying subtle forms of toxicity (Noever 2018), detecting early signs of toxicity (Zhang et al. 2018), and analysing sarcasm within conversations (Ghosh, Fabbri, and Muresan 2018).


Ruddit: Norms of Offensiveness for English Reddit Comments

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

On social media platforms, hateful and offensive language negatively impact the mental well-being of users and the participation of people from diverse backgrounds. Automatic methods to detect offensive language have largely relied on datasets with categorical labels. However, comments can vary in their degree of offensiveness. We create the first dataset of English language Reddit comments that has fine-grained, real-valued scores between -1 (maximally supportive) and 1 (maximally offensive). The dataset was annotated using Best--Worst Scaling, a form of comparative annotation that has been shown to alleviate known biases of using rating scales. We show that the method produces highly reliable offensiveness scores. Finally, we evaluate the ability of widely-used neural models to predict offensiveness scores on this new dataset.