Data Assimilation by Artificial Neural Networks for an Atmospheric General Circulation Model: Conventional Observation Artificial Intelligence

This paper presents an approach for employing artificial neural networks (NN) to emulate an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) as a method of data assimilation. The assimilation methods are tested in the Simplified Parameterizations PrimitivE-Equation Dynamics (SPEEDY) model, an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), using synthetic observational data simulating localization of balloon soundings. For the data assimilation scheme, the supervised NN, the multilayer perceptrons (MLP-NN), is applied. The MLP-NN are able to emulate the analysis from the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF). After the training process, the method using the MLP-NN is seen as a function of data assimilation. The NN were trained with data from first three months of 1982, 1983, and 1984. A hind-casting experiment for the 1985 data assimilation cycle using MLP-NN were performed with synthetic observations for January 1985. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the NN technique for atmospheric data assimilation. The results of the NN analyses are very close to the results from the LETKF analyses, the differences of the monthly average of absolute temperature analyses is of order 0.02. The simulations show that the major advantage of using the MLP-NN is better computational performance, since the analyses have similar quality. The CPU-time cycle assimilation with MLP-NN is 90 times faster than cycle assimilation with LETKF for the numerical experiment.

Coupling techniques for nonlinear ensemble filtering Machine Learning

We consider filtering in high-dimensional non-Gaussian state-space models with intractable transition kernels, nonlinear and possibly chaotic dynamics, and sparse observations in space and time. We propose a novel filtering methodology that harnesses transportation of measures, convex optimization, and ideas from probabilistic graphical models to yield robust ensemble approximations of the filtering distribution in high dimensions. Our approach can be understood as the natural generalization of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to nonlinear updates, using stochastic or deterministic couplings. The use of nonlinear updates can reduce the intrinsic bias of the EnKF at a marginal increase in computational cost. We avoid any form of importance sampling and introduce non-Gaussian localization approaches for dimension scalability. Our framework achieves state-of-the-art tracking performance on challenging configurations of the Lorenz-96 model in the chaotic regime.

Variational Inference for Diffusion Processes

Neural Information Processing Systems

Diffusion processes are a family of continuous-time continuous-state stochastic processes that are in general only partially observed. The joint estimation of the forcing parameters and the system noise (volatility) in these dynamical systems is a crucial, but non-trivial task, especially when the system is nonlinear and multi-modal. We propose a variational treatment of diffusion processes, which allows us to estimate these parameters by simple gradient techniques and which is computationally less demanding than most MCMC approaches. Furthermore, our parameter inference scheme does not break down when the time step gets smaller, unlike most current approaches. Finally, we show how a cheap estimate of the posterior over the parameters can be constructed based on the variational free energy.

Kernel embedding of maps for sequential Bayesian inference: The variational mapping particle filter Machine Learning

In this work, a novel sequential Monte Carlo filter is introduced which aims at efficient sampling of high-dimensional state spaces with a limited number of particles. Particles are pushed forward from the prior to the posterior density using a sequence of mappings that minimizes the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the posterior and the sequence of intermediate densities. The sequence of mappings represents a gradient flow. A key ingredient of the mappings is that they are embedded in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space, which allows for a practical and efficient algorithm. The embedding provides a direct means to calculate the gradient of the Kullback-Leibler divergence leading to quick convergence using well-known gradient-based stochastic optimization algorithms. Evaluation of the method is conducted in the chaotic Lorenz-63 system, the Lorenz-96 system, which is a coarse prototype of atmospheric dynamics, and an epidemic model that describes cholera dynamics. No resampling is required in the mapping particle filter even for long recursive sequences. The number of effective particles remains close to the total number of particles in all the experiments.

Model parameter estimation using coherent structure coloring Machine Learning

Lagrangian data assimilation is a complex problem in oceanic and atmospheric modeling. Tracking drifters in large-scale geophysical flows can involve uncertainty in drifter location, complex inertial effects, and other factors which make comparing them to simulated Lagrangian trajectories from numerical models extremely challenging. Temporal and spatial discretization, factors necessary in modeling large scale flows, also contribute to separation between real and simulated drifter trajectories. The chaotic advection inherent in these turbulent flows tends to separate even closely spaced tracer particles, making error metrics based solely on drifter displacements unsuitable for estimating model parameters. We propose to instead use error in the coherent structure coloring (CSC) field to assess model skill. The CSC field provides a spatial representation of the underlying coherent patterns in the flow, and we show that it is a more robust metric for assessing model accuracy. Through the use of two test cases, one considering spatial uncertainty in particle initialization, and one examining the influence of stochastic error along a trajectory and temporal discretization, we show that error in the coherent structure coloring field can be used to accurately determine single or multiple simultaneously unknown model parameters, whereas a conventional error metric based on error in drifter displacement fails. Because the CSC field enhances the difference in error between correct and incorrect model parameters, error minima in model parameter sweeps become more distinct. The effectiveness and robustness of this method for single and multi-parameter estimation in analytical flows suggests that Lagrangian data assimilation for real oceanic and atmospheric models would benefit from a similar approach.