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Characterizing an Analogical Concept Memory for Architectures Implementing the Common Model of Cognition

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Architectures that implement the Common Model of Cognition - Soar, ACT-R, and Sigma - have a prominent place in research on cognitive modeling as well as on designing complex intelligent agents. In this paper, we explore how computational models of analogical processing can be brought into these architectures to enable concept acquisition from examples obtained interactively. We propose a new analogical concept memory for Soar that augments its current system of declarative long-term memories. We frame the problem of concept learning as embedded within the larger context of interactive task learning (ITL) and embodied language processing (ELP). We demonstrate that the analogical learning methods implemented in the proposed memory can quickly learn a diverse types of novel concepts that are useful not only in recognition of a concept in the environment but also in action selection. Our approach has been instantiated in an implemented cognitive system \textsc{Aileen} and evaluated on a simulated robotic domain.


Analogical Proportions

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Analogy-making is at the core of human intelligence and creativity with applications to such diverse tasks as commonsense reasoning, learning, language acquisition, and story telling. This paper contributes to the foundations of artificial general intelligence by introducing an abstract algebraic framework of analogical proportions of the form `$a$ is to $b$ what $c$ is to $d$' in the general setting of universal algebra. This enables us to compare mathematical objects possibly across different domains in a uniform way which is crucial for AI-systems. The main idea is to define solutions to analogical equations in terms of generalizations and to derive abstract terms of concrete elements from a `known' source domain which can then be instantiated in an `unknown' target domain to obtain analogous elements. We extensively compare our framework with two prominent and recently introduced frameworks of analogical proportions from the literature in the concrete domains of sets, numbers, and words and show that our framework yields strictly more reasonable solutions in all of these cases which provides evidence for the applicability of our framework. In a broader sense, this paper is a first step towards an algebraic theory of analogical reasoning and learning systems with potential applications to fundamental AI-problems like commonsense reasoning and computational learning and creativity.



Creating Analogy-Based Interpretations of Blended Noun Concepts

AAAI Conferences

An analogy-based approach is explained that suggests possible interpretations of previously-unseen modifier-head noun compounds. The approach utilizes an analogical relation between the modifier and the head, viewing them as source and target concepts in the analogy, in order to suggest a relationship between the constituent nouns in the compound. The approach interprets the novel composition by employing the conceptual blending mechanism to create new concept representations in a proposed model of computational creativity.


Plausible Reasoning about EL-Ontologies using Concept Interpolation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Description logics (DLs) are standard knowledge representation languages for modelling ontologies, i.e. knowledge about concepts and the relations between them. Unfortunately, DL ontologies are difficult to learn from data and time-consuming to encode manually. As a result, ontologies for broad domains are almost inevitably incomplete. In recent years, several data-driven approaches have been proposed for automatically extending such ontologies. One family of methods rely on characterizations of concepts that are derived from text descriptions. While such characterizations do not capture ontological knowledge directly, they encode information about the similarity between different concepts, which can be exploited for filling in the gaps in existing ontologies. To this end, several inductive inference mechanisms have already been proposed, but these have been defined and used in a heuristic fashion. In this paper, we instead propose an inductive inference mechanism which is based on a clear model-theoretic semantics, and can thus be tightly integrated with standard deductive reasoning. We particularly focus on interpolation, a powerful commonsense reasoning mechanism which is closely related to cognitive models of category-based induction. Apart from the formalization of the underlying semantics, as our main technical contribution we provide computational complexity bounds for reasoning in EL with this interpolation mechanism.