Celiac Disease (CD) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the small intestine in genetically predisposed children and adults. Gluten exposure triggers an inflammatory cascade which leads to compromised intestinal barrier function. If this enteropathy is unrecognized, this can lead to anemia, decreased bone density, and, in longstanding cases, intestinal cancer. The prevalence of the disorder is 1% in the United States. An intestinal (duodenal) biopsy is considered the "gold standard" for diagnosis. The mild CD might go unnoticed due to non-specific clinical symptoms or mild histologic features. In our current work, we trained a model based on deep residual networks to diagnose CD severity using a histological scoring system called the modified Marsh score. The proposed model was evaluated using an independent set of 120 whole slide images from 15 CD patients and achieved an AUC greater than 0.96 in all classes. These results demonstrate the diagnostic power of the proposed model for CD severity classification using histological images.
Analyzing the ever-increasing volume of posts on social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter requires improved information processing methods for profiling authorship. Document classification is central to this task, but the performance of traditional supervised classifiers has degraded as the volume of social media has increased. This paper addresses this problem in the context of gender detection through ensemble classification that employs multi-model deep learning architectures to generate specialized understanding from different feature spaces.
Malaria is a female anopheles mosquito-bite inflicted life-threatening disease which is considered endemic in many parts of the world. This article focuses on improving malaria detection from patches segmented from microscopic images of red blood cell smears by introducing a deep convolutional neural network. Compared to the traditional methods that use tedious hand engineering feature extraction, the proposed method uses deep learning in an end-to-end arrangement that performs both feature extraction and classification directly from the raw segmented patches of the red blood smears. The dataset used in this study was taken from National Institute of Health named NIH Malaria Dataset. The evaluation metric accuracy and loss along with 5-fold cross validation was used to compare and select the best performing architecture. To maximize the performance, existing standard pre-processing techniques from the literature has also been experimented. In addition, several other complex architectures have been implemented and tested to pick the best performing model. A holdout test has also been conducted to verify how well the proposed model generalizes on unseen data. Our best model achieves an accuracy of almost 97.77%.
Analysis of histopathology slides is a critical step for many diagnoses, and in particular in oncology where it defines the gold standard. In the case of digital histopathological analysis, highly trained pathologists must review vast whole-slide-images of extreme digital resolution ($100,000^2$ pixels) across multiple zoom levels in order to locate abnormal regions of cells, or in some cases single cells, out of millions. The application of deep learning to this problem is hampered not only by small sample sizes, as typical datasets contain only a few hundred samples, but also by the generation of ground-truth localized annotations for training interpretable classification and segmentation models. We propose a method for disease localization in the context of weakly supervised learning, where only image-level labels are available during training. Even without pixel-level annotations, we are able to demonstrate performance comparable with models trained with strong annotations on the Camelyon-16 lymph node metastases detection challenge. We accomplish this through the use of pre-trained deep convolutional networks, feature embedding, as well as learning via top instances and negative evidence, a multiple instance learning technique from the field of semantic segmentation and object detection.
Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death by cancer for women. Early detection can give patients more treatment options. In order to detect signs of cancer, breast tissue from biopsies is stained to enhance the nuclei and cytoplasm for microscopic examination. Then, pathologists evaluate the extent of any abnormal structural variation to determine whether there are tumors. Since the majority of biopsies find normal and benign results, most of the manual labelling of these microscopic images is redundant.