DOPING: Generative Data Augmentation for Unsupervised Anomaly Detection with GAN Machine Learning

Recently, the introduction of the generative adversarial network (GAN) and its variants has enabled the generation of realistic synthetic samples, which has been used for enlarging training sets. Previous work primarily focused on data augmentation for semi-supervised and supervised tasks. In this paper, we instead focus on unsupervised anomaly detection and propose a novel generative data augmentation framework optimized for this task. In particular, we propose to oversample infrequent normal samples - normal samples that occur with small probability, e.g., rare normal events. We show that these samples are responsible for false positives in anomaly detection. However, oversampling of infrequent normal samples is challenging for real-world high-dimensional data with multimodal distributions. To address this challenge, we propose to use a GAN variant known as the adversarial autoencoder (AAE) to transform the high-dimensional multimodal data distributions into low-dimensional unimodal latent distributions with well-defined tail probability. Then, we systematically oversample at the `edge' of the latent distributions to increase the density of infrequent normal samples. We show that our oversampling pipeline is a unified one: it is generally applicable to datasets with different complex data distributions. To the best of our knowledge, our method is the first data augmentation technique focused on improving performance in unsupervised anomaly detection. We validate our method by demonstrating consistent improvements across several real-world datasets.

Domain Adaptation for Vehicle Detection from Bird's Eye View LiDAR Point Cloud Data Artificial Intelligence

Point cloud data from 3D LiDAR sensors are one of the most crucial sensor modalities for versatile safety-critical applications such as self-driving vehicles. Since the annotations of point cloud data is an expensive and time-consuming process, therefore recently the utilisation of simulated environments and 3D LiDAR sensors for this task started to get some popularity. With simulated sensors and environments, the process for obtaining an annotated synthetic point cloud data became much easier. However, the generated synthetic point cloud data are still missing the artefacts usually exist in point cloud data from real 3D LiDAR sensors. As a result, the performance of the trained models on this data for perception tasks when tested on real point cloud data is degraded due to the domain shift between simulated and real environments. Thus, in this work, we are proposing a domain adaptation framework for bridging this gap between synthetic and real point cloud data. Our proposed framework is based on the deep cycle-consistent generative adversarial networks (CycleGAN) architecture. We have evaluated the performance of our proposed framework on the task of vehicle detection from a bird's eye view (BEV) point cloud images coming from real 3D LiDAR sensors. The framework has shown competitive results with an improvement of more than 7% in average precision score over other baseline approaches when tested on real BEV point cloud images.

GAN-based method for cyber-intrusion detection Machine Learning

Ubiquitous cyber-intrusions endanger the security of our devices constantly. They may bring irreversible damages to the system and cause leakage of privacy. Thus, it is of vital importance to promptly detect these intrusions. Traditional methods such as Decision Trees and Support Vector Machine (SVM) are used to classify normal internet connections and cyber-intrusions. However, the intrusions are largely fewer than normal connections, which limits the capability of these methods. Anomaly detection methods such as Isolation Forest can handle the imbalanced data. Nevertheless, when the features of data increase, these methods lack enough ability to learn the distribution. Generative adversarial network (GAN) has been proposed to solve the above issues. With its strong generative ability, it only needs to learn the distribution of normal status, and identify the abnormal status when intrusion occurs. But existing models are not suitable to process discrete values, leading to immense degradation of detection performance. To cope with these challenges, in this paper, we propose a novel GAN-based model with specifically-designed loss function to detect cyber-intrusions. Experiment results show that our model outperforms state-of-the-art models and remarkably reduce the overhead.

Guiding the One-to-one Mapping in CycleGAN via Optimal Transport Artificial Intelligence

CycleGAN is capable of learning a one-to-one mapping between two data distributions without paired examples, achieving the task of unsupervised data translation. However, there is no theoretical guarantee on the property of the learned one-to-one mapping in CycleGAN. In this paper, we experimentally find that, under some circumstances, the one-to-one mapping learned by CycleGAN is just a random one within the large feasible solution space. Based on this observation, we explore to add extra constraints such that the one-to-one mapping is controllable and satisfies more properties related to specific tasks. We propose to solve an optimal transport mapping restrained by a task-specific cost function that reflects the desired properties, and use the barycenters of optimal transport mapping to serve as references for CycleGAN. Our experiments indicate that the proposed algorithm is capable of learning a one-to-one mapping with the desired properties.

Unsupervised Attention-guided Image to Image Translation Artificial Intelligence

Current unsupervised image-to-image translation techniques struggle to focus their attention on individual objects without altering the background or the way multiple objects interact within a scene. Motivated by the important role of attention in human perception, we tackle this limitation by introducing unsupervised attention mechanisms that are jointly adversarialy trained with the generators and discriminators. We demonstrate qualitatively and quantitatively that our approach is able to attend to relevant regions in the image without requiring supervision, and that by doing so it achieves more realistic mappings compared to recent approaches.