The nested Chinese restaurant process and Bayesian nonparametric inference of topic hierarchies

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We present the nested Chinese restaurant process (nCRP), a stochastic process which assigns probability distributions to infinitely-deep, infinitely-branching trees. We show how this stochastic process can be used as a prior distribution in a Bayesian nonparametric model of document collections. Specifically, we present an application to information retrieval in which documents are modeled as paths down a random tree, and the preferential attachment dynamics of the nCRP leads to clustering of documents according to sharing of topics at multiple levels of abstraction. Given a corpus of documents, a posterior inference algorithm finds an approximation to a posterior distribution over trees, topics and allocations of words to levels of the tree. We demonstrate this algorithm on collections of scientific abstracts from several journals. This model exemplifies a recent trend in statistical machine learning--the use of Bayesian nonparametric methods to infer distributions on flexible data structures.


Hierarchical Topic Models and the Nested Chinese Restaurant Process

Neural Information Processing Systems

We address the problem of learning topic hierarchies from data. The model selection problem in this domain is daunting--which of the large collection of possible trees to use? We take a Bayesian approach, generating anappropriate prior via a distribution on partitions that we refer to as the nested Chinese restaurant process. This nonparametric prior allows arbitrarilylarge branching factors and readily accommodates growing data collections. We build a hierarchical topic model by combining this prior with a likelihood that is based on a hierarchical variant of latent Dirichlet allocation. We illustrate our approach on simulated data and with an application to the modeling of NIPS abstracts.


Learning a Concept Hierarchy from Multi-labeled Documents

Neural Information Processing Systems

While topic models can discover patterns of word usage in large corpora, it is difficult to meld this unsupervised structure with noisy, human-provided labels, especially when the label space is large. In this paper, we present a model-Label to Hierarchy (L2H)-that can induce a hierarchy of user-generated labels and the topics associated with those labels from a set of multi-labeled documents. The model is robust enough to account for missing labels from untrained, disparate annotators and provide an interpretable summary of an otherwise unwieldy label set. We show empirically the effectiveness of L2H in predicting held-out words and labels for unseen documents.


Nonparametric Bayes Pachinko Allocation

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Recent advances in topic models have explored complicated structured distributions to represent topic correlation. For example, the pachinko allocation model (PAM) captures arbitrary, nested, and possibly sparse correlations between topics using a directed acyclic graph (DAG). While PAM provides more flexibility and greater expressive power than previous models like latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), it is also more difficult to determine the appropriate topic structure for a specific dataset. In this paper, we propose a nonparametric Bayesian prior for PAM based on a variant of the hierarchical Dirichlet process (HDP). Although the HDP can capture topic correlations defined by nested data structure, it does not automatically discover such correlations from unstructured data. By assuming an HDP-based prior for PAM, we are able to learn both the number of topics and how the topics are correlated. We evaluate our model on synthetic and real-world text datasets, and show that nonparametric PAM achieves performance matching the best of PAM without manually tuning the number of topics.


Dirichlet Process with Mixed Random Measures: A Nonparametric Topic Model for Labeled Data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We describe a nonparametric topic model for labeled data. The model uses a mixture of random measures (MRM) as a base distribution of the Dirichlet process (DP) of the HDP framework, so we call it the DP-MRM. To model labeled data, we define a DP distributed random measure for each label, and the resulting model generates an unbounded number of topics for each label. We apply DP-MRM on single-labeled and multi-labeled corpora of documents and compare the performance on label prediction with MedLDA, LDA-SVM, and Labeled-LDA. We further enhance the model by incorporating ddCRP and modeling multi-labeled images for image segmentation and object labeling, comparing the performance with nCuts and rddCRP.