The Slow Feature Analysis (SFA) unsupervised learning framework extracts features representing the underlying causes of the changes within a temporally coherent high-dimensional raw sensory input signal. We develop the first online version of SFA, via a combination of incremental Principal Components Analysis and Minor Components Analysis. Unlike standard batch-based SFA, online SFA adapts along with non-stationary environments, which makes it a generally useful unsupervised preprocessor for autonomous learning agents. We compare online SFA to batch SFA in several experiments and show that it indeed learns without a teacher to encode the input stream by informative slow features representing meaningful abstract environmental properties. We extend online SFA to deep networks in hierarchical fashion, and use them to successfully extract abstract object position information from high-dimensional video.
Principal component analysis (PCA), a well-established technique for data analysis and processing, provides a convenient form of dimensionality reduction that is effective for cleaning small Gaussian noises presented in the data. However, the applicability of standard principal component analysis in real scenarios is limited by its sensitivity to large errors. In this paper, we tackle the challenge problem of recovering data corrupted with errors of high magnitude by developing a novel robust transfer principal component analysis method. Our method is based on the assumption that useful information for the recovery of a corrupted data matrix can be gained from an uncorrupted related data matrix. Specifically, we formulate the data recovery problem as a joint robust principal component analysis problem on the two data matrices, with shared common principal components across matrices and individual principal components specific to each data matrix.
Principal component regression (PCR) is a two-stage procedure that selects some principal components and then constructs a regression model regarding them as new explanatory variables. Note that the principal components are obtained from only explanatory variables and not considered with the response variable. To address this problem, we propose the sparse principal component regression (SPCR) that is a one-stage procedure for PCR. SPCR enables us to adaptively obtain sparse principal component loadings that are related to the response variable and select the number of principal components simultaneously. SPCR can be obtained by the convex optimization problem for each of parameters with the coordinate descent algorithm. Monte Carlo simulations and real data analyses are performed to illustrate the effectiveness of SPCR.
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a popular tool for dimensionality reduction and feature extraction in data analysis. There is a probabilistic version of PCA, known as Probabilistic PCA (PPCA). However, standard PCA and PPCA are not robust, as they are sensitive to outliers. To alleviate this problem, this paper introduces the Self-Paced Learning mechanism into PPCA, and proposes a novel method called Self-Paced Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis (SP-PPCA). Furthermore, we design the corresponding optimization algorithm based on the alternative search strategy and the expectation-maximization algorithm. SP-PPCA looks for optimal projection vectors and filters out outliers iteratively. Experiments on both synthetic problems and real-world datasets clearly demonstrate that SP-PPCA is able to reduce or eliminate the impact of outliers.