Tree data occurs in many forms, such as computer programs, chemical molecules, or natural language. Unfortunately, the non-vectorial and discrete nature of trees makes it challenging to construct functions with tree-formed output, complicating tasks such as optimization or time series prediction. Autoencoders address this challenge by mapping trees to a vectorial latent space, where tasks are easier to solve, and then mapping the solution back to a tree structure. However, existing autoencoding approaches for tree data fail to take the specific grammatical structure of tree domains into account and rely on deep learning, thus requiring large training datasets and long training times. In this paper, we propose tree echo state autoencoders (TES-AE), which are guided by a tree grammar and can be trained within seconds by virtue of reservoir computing. In our evaluation on three datasets, we demonstrate that our proposed approach is not only much faster than a state-of-the-art deep learning autoencoding approach (D-VAE) but also has less autoencoding error if little data and time is given.
We introduce the Contextual Graph Markov Model, an approach combining ideas from generative models and neural networks for the processing of graph data. It founds on a constructive methodology to build a deep architecture comprising layers of probabilistic models that learn to encode the structured information in an incremental fashion. Context is diffused in an efficient and scalable way across the graph vertexes and edges. The resulting graph encoding is used in combination with discriminative models to address structure classification benchmarks.
Metric learning has the aim to improve classification accuracy by learning a distance measure which brings data points from the same class closer together and pushes data points from different classes further apart. Recent research has demonstrated that metric learning approaches can also be applied to trees, such as molecular structures, abstract syntax trees of computer programs, or syntax trees of natural language, by learning the cost function of an edit distance, i.e. the costs of replacing, deleting, or inserting nodes in a tree. However, learning such costs directly may yield an edit distance which violates metric axioms, is challenging to interpret, and may not generalize well. In this contribution, we propose a novel metric learning approach for trees which learns an edit distance indirectly by embedding the tree nodes as vectors, such that the Euclidean distance between those vectors supports class discrimination. We learn such embeddings by reducing the distance to prototypical trees from the same class and increasing the distance to prototypical trees from different classes. In our experiments, we show that our proposed metric learning approach improves upon the state-of-the-art in metric learning for trees on six benchmark data sets, ranging from computer science over biomedical data to a natural-language processing data set containing over 300,000 nodes.
Many machine learning techniques have been proposed in the last few years to process data represented in graph-structured form. Graphs can be used to model several scenarios, from molecules and materials to RNA secondary structures. Several kernel functions have been defined on graphs that coupled with kernelized learning algorithms, have shown state-of-the-art performances on many tasks. Recently, several definitions of Neural Networks for Graph (GNNs) have been proposed, but their accuracy is not yet satisfying. In this paper, we propose a task-independent pre-training methodology that allows a GNN to learn the representation induced by state-of-the-art graph kernels. Then, the supervised learning phase will fine-tune this representation for the task at hand. The proposed technique is agnostic on the adopted GNN architecture and kernel function, and shows consistent improvements in the predictive performance of GNNs in our preliminary experimental results.
We address the efficiency issue for the construction of a deep graph neural network (GNN). The approach exploits the idea of representing each input graph as a fixed point of a dynamical system (implemented through a recurrent neural network), and leverages a deep architectural organization of the recurrent units. Efficiency is gained by many aspects, including the use of small and very sparse networks, where the weights of the recurrent units are left untrained under the stability condition introduced in this work. This can be viewed as a way to study the intrinsic power of the architecture of a deep GNN, and also to provide insights for the set-up of more complex fully-trained models. Through experimental results, we show that even without training of the recurrent connections, the architecture of small deep GNN is surprisingly able to achieve or improve the state-of-the-art performance on a significant set of tasks in the field of graphs classification.