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A Survey on Edge Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Edge intelligence refers to a set of connected systems and devices for data collection, caching, processing, and analysis in locations close to where data is captured based on artificial intelligence. The aim of edge intelligence is to enhance the quality and speed of data processing and protect the privacy and security of the data. Although recently emerged, spanning the period from 2011 to now, this field of research has shown explosive growth over the past five years. In this paper, we present a thorough and comprehensive survey on the literature surrounding edge intelligence. We first identify four fundamental components of edge intelligence, namely edge caching, edge training, edge inference, and edge offloading, based on theoretical and practical results pertaining to proposed and deployed systems. We then aim for a systematic classification of the state of the solutions by examining research results and observations for each of the four components and present a taxonomy that includes practical problems, adopted techniques, and application goals. For each category, we elaborate, compare and analyse the literature from the perspectives of adopted techniques, objectives, performance, advantages and drawbacks, etc. This survey article provides a comprehensive introduction to edge intelligence and its application areas. In addition, we summarise the development of the emerging research field and the current state-of-the-art and discuss the important open issues and possible theoretical and technical solutions.


A Survey of Available Corpora for Building Data-Driven Dialogue Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

During the past decade, several areas of speech and language understanding have witnessed substantial breakthroughs from the use of data-driven models. In the area of dialogue systems, the trend is less obvious, and most practical systems are still built through significant engineering and expert knowledge. Nevertheless, several recent results suggest that data-driven approaches are feasible and quite promising. To facilitate research in this area, we have carried out a wide survey of publicly available datasets suitable for data-driven learning of dialogue systems. We discuss important characteristics of these datasets, how they can be used to learn diverse dialogue strategies, and their other potential uses. We also examine methods for transfer learning between datasets and the use of external knowledge. Finally, we discuss appropriate choice of evaluation metrics for the learning objective.


Deep Encoder-Decoder Models for Unsupervised Learning of Controllable Speech Synthesis

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Generating versatile and appropriate synthetic speech requires control over the output expression separate from the spoken text. Important non-textual speech variation is seldom annotated, in which case output control must be learned in an unsupervised fashion. In this paper, we perform an in-depth study of methods for unsupervised learning of control in statistical speech synthesis. For example, we show that popular unsupervised training heuristics can be interpreted as variational inference in certain autoencoder models. We additionally connect these models to VQ-VAEs, another, recently-proposed class of deep variational autoencoders, which we show can be derived from a very similar mathematical argument. The implications of these new probabilistic interpretations are discussed. We illustrate the utility of the various approaches with an application to emotional speech synthesis, where the unsupervised methods for learning expression control (without access to emotional labels) are found to give results that in many aspects match or surpass the previous best supervised approach.



Anti-spoofing Methods for Automatic SpeakerVerification System

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Growing interest in automatic speaker verification (ASV)systems has lead to significant quality improvement of spoofing attackson them. Many research works confirm that despite the low equal er-ror rate (EER) ASV systems are still vulnerable to spoofing attacks. Inthis work we overview different acoustic feature spaces and classifiersto determine reliable and robust countermeasures against spoofing at-tacks. We compared several spoofing detection systems, presented so far,on the development and evaluation datasets of the Automatic SpeakerVerification Spoofing and Countermeasures (ASVspoof) Challenge 2015.Experimental results presented in this paper demonstrate that the useof magnitude and phase information combination provides a substantialinput into the efficiency of the spoofing detection systems. Also wavelet-based features show impressive results in terms of equal error rate. Inour overview we compare spoofing performance for systems based on dif-ferent classifiers. Comparison results demonstrate that the linear SVMclassifier outperforms the conventional GMM approach. However, manyresearchers inspired by the great success of deep neural networks (DNN)approaches in the automatic speech recognition, applied DNN in thespoofing detection task and obtained quite low EER for known and un-known type of spoofing attacks.