Graph Attention Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We present graph attention networks (GATs), novel neural network architectures that operate on graph-structured data, leveraging masked self-attentional layers to address the shortcomings of prior methods based on graph convolutions or their approximations. By stacking layers in which nodes are able to attend over their neighborhoods' features, we enable (implicitly) specifying different weights to different nodes in a neighborhood, without requiring any kind of costly matrix operation (such as inversion) or depending on knowing the graph structure upfront. In this way, we address several key challenges of spectral-based graph neural networks simultaneously, and make our model readily applicable to inductive as well as transductive problems. Our GAT models have achieved or matched state-of-the-art results across four established transductive and inductive graph benchmarks: the Cora, Citeseer and Pubmed citation network datasets, as well as a protein-protein interaction dataset (wherein test graphs remain unseen during training).


Learning to Make Predictions on Graphs with Autoencoders

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We examine two fundamental tasks associated with graph representation learning: link prediction and semi-supervised node classification. We present a densely connected autoencoder architecture capable of learning a joint representation of both local graph structure and available external node features for the multi-task learning of link prediction and node classification. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first architecture that can be efficiently trained end-to-end in a single learning stage to simultaneously perform link prediction and node classification. We provide comprehensive empirical evaluation of our models on a range of challenging benchmark graph-structured datasets, and demonstrate significant improvement in accuracy over related methods for graph representation learning. Code implementation is available at https://github.com/vuptran/graph-representation-learning


Deep Graph Infomax

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We present Deep Graph Infomax (DGI), a general approach for learning node representations within graph-structured data in an unsupervised manner. DGI relies on maximizing mutual information between patch representations and corresponding high-level summaries of graphs---both derived using established graph convolutional network architectures. The learnt patch representations summarize subgraphs centered around nodes of interest, and can thus be reused for downstream node-wise learning tasks. In contrast to most prior approaches to graph representation learning, DGI does not rely on random walks, and is readily applicable to both transductive and inductive learning setups. We demonstrate competitive performance on a variety of node classification benchmarks, which at times even exceeds the performance of supervised learning.


Multi-Task Graph Autoencoders

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We examine two fundamental tasks associated with graph representation learning: link prediction and node classification. We present a new autoencoder architecture capable of learning a joint representation of local graph structure and available node features for the simultaneous multi-task learning of unsupervised link prediction and semi-supervised node classification. Our simple, yet effective and versatile model is efficiently trained end-to-end in a single stage, whereas previous related deep graph embedding methods require multiple training steps that are difficult to optimize. We provide an empirical evaluation of our model on five benchmark relational, graph-structured datasets and demonstrate significant improvement over three strong baselines for graph representation learning. Reference code and data are available at https://github.com/vuptran/graph-representation-learning


Adversarially Regularized Graph Autoencoder

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Graph embedding is an effective method to represent graph data in a low dimensional space for graph analytics. Most existing embedding algorithms typically focus on preserving the topological structure or minimizing the reconstruction errors of graph data, but they have mostly ignored the data distribution of the latent codes from the graphs, which often results in inferior embedding in real-world graph data. In this paper, we propose a novel adversarial graph embedding framework for graph data. The framework encodes the topological structure and node content in a graph to a compact representation, on which a decoder is trained to reconstruct the graph structure. Furthermore, the latent representation is enforced to match a prior distribution via an adversarial training scheme. To learn a robust embedding, two variants of adversarial approaches, adversarially regularized graph autoencoder (ARGA) and adversarially regularized variational graph autoencoder (ARVGA), are developed. Experimental studies on real-world graphs validate our design and demonstrate that our algorithms outperform baselines by a wide margin in link prediction, graph clustering, and graph visualization tasks.