Accurate prediction of disease trajectories is critical for early identification and timely treatment of patients at risk. Conventional methods in survival analysis are often constrained by strong parametric assumptions and limited in their ability to learn from high-dimensional data, while existing neural network models are not readily-adapted to the longitudinal setting. This paper develops a novel convolutional approach that addresses these drawbacks. We present MATCH-Net: a Missingness-Aware Temporal Convolutional Hitting-time Network, designed to capture temporal dependencies and heterogeneous interactions in covariate trajectories and patterns of missingness. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation of temporal convolutions in the context of dynamic prediction for personalized risk prognosis. Using real-world data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, we demonstrate state-of-the-art performance without making any assumptions regarding underlying longitudinal or time-to-event processes attesting to the model's potential utility in clinical decision support.
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. Regression analysis has been studied to relate neuroimaging measures to cognitive status. However, whether these measures have further predictive power to infer a trajectory of cognitive performance over time is still an under-explored but important topic in AD research. We propose a novel high-order multi-task learning model to address this issue. The proposed model explores the temporal correlations existing in data features and regression tasks by the structured sparsity-inducing norms.
Toronto: A team of scientists, including one of an Indian-origin, has successfully trained a new Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithm that may soon help doctors to make accurate predictions regarding cognitive decline leading to Alzheimer's disease and provide intervention. The team, from the McGill University in Canada, designed an algorithm that learns signatures from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), genetics, and clinical data. This specific algorithm can help predict whether an individual's cognitive faculties are likely to deteriorate towards Alzheimer's in the next five years. "At the moment, there are limited ways to treat Alzheimer's and the best evidence we have is for prevention. Our AI methodology could have significant implications as a'doctor's assistant' that would help stream people onto the right pathway for treatment," Mallar Chakravarty, assistant professor at the University's Department of Psychiatry.
Graph deep learning has recently emerged as a powerful ML concept allowing to generalize successful deep neural architectures to non-Euclidean structured data. Such methods have shown promising results on a broad spectrum of applications ranging from social science, biomedicine, and particle physics to computer vision, graphics, and chemistry. One of the limitations of the majority of the current graph neural network architectures is that they are often restricted to the transductive setting and rely on the assumption that the underlying graph is known and fixed. In many settings, such as those arising in medical and healthcare applications, this assumption is not necessarily true since the graph may be noisy, partially- or even completely unknown, and one is thus interested in inferring it from the data. This is especially important in inductive settings when dealing with nodes not present in the graph at training time. Furthermore, sometimes such a graph itself may convey insights that are even more important than the downstream task. In this paper, we introduce Differentiable Graph Module (DGM), a learnable function predicting the edge probability in the graph relevant for the task, that can be combined with convolutional graph neural network layers and trained in an end-to-end fashion. We provide an extensive evaluation of applications from the domains of healthcare (disease prediction), brain imaging (gender and age prediction), computer graphics (3D point cloud segmentation), and computer vision (zero-shot learning). We show that our model provides a significant improvement over baselines both in transductive and inductive settings and achieves state-of-the-art results.
There are currently developed algorithms for fractures and malignancies detection based on X-ray, CT and MRI image recognition. Also, there are a number of commercialized AI algorithms for predicting injury patterns and predicting postoperative complications following orthopedic and trauma procedures. This is one of the medical fields with the most abundant AI implementation. AI algorithms are being used for suicide prediction and for depression and anxiety treatment, a feature performed by chatbots. Used for early diagnostics of chronic diseases such as Multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, and for a number of acute neurological diseases such as brain tissue ischemia, intracranial hemorrhage, and hydrocephalus.