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Supporting Analysis of Dimensionality Reduction Results with Contrastive Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Dimensionality reduction (DR) is frequently used for analyzing and visualizing high-dimensional data as it provides a good first glance of the data. However, to interpret the DR result for gaining useful insights from the data, it would take additional analysis effort such as identifying clusters and understanding their characteristics. While there are many automatic methods (e.g., density-based clustering methods) to identify clusters, effective methods for understanding a cluster's characteristics are still lacking. A cluster can be mostly characterized by its distribution of feature values. Reviewing the original feature values is not a straightforward task when the number of features is large. To address this challenge, we present a visual analytics method that effectively highlights the essential features of a cluster in a DR result. To extract the essential features, we introduce an enhanced usage of contrastive principal component analysis (cPCA). Our method can calculate each feature's relative contribution to the contrast between one cluster and other clusters. With our cPCA-based method, we have created an interactive system including a scalable visualization of clusters' feature contributions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method and system with case studies using several publicly available datasets.


Attribute-based Explanations of Non-Linear Embeddings of High-Dimensional Data

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Embeddings of high-dimensional data are widely used to explore data, to verify analysis results, and to communicate information. Their explanation, in particular with respect to the input attributes, is often difficult. With linear projects like PCA the axes can still be annotated meaningfully. With non-linear projections this is no longer possible and alternative strategies such as attribute-based color coding are required. In this paper, we review existing augmentation techniques and discuss their limitations. We present the Non-Linear Embeddings Surveyor (NoLiES) that combines a novel augmentation strategy for projected data (rangesets) with interactive analysis in a small multiples setting. Rangesets use a set-based visualization approach for binned attribute values that enable the user to quickly observe structure and detect outliers. We detail the link between algebraic topology and rangesets and demonstrate the utility of NoLiES in case studies with various challenges (complex attribute value distribution, many attributes, many data points) and a real-world application to understand latent features of matrix completion in thermodynamics.


Exploring High-Dimensional Structure via Axis-Aligned Decomposition of Linear Projections

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Two-dimensional embeddings remain the dominant approach to visualize high dimensional data. The choice of embeddings ranges from highly non-linear ones, which can capture complex relationships but are difficult to interpret quantitatively, to axis-aligned projections, which are easy to interpret but are limited to bivariate relationships. Linear project can be considered as a compromise between complexity and interpretability, as they allow explicit axes labels, yet provide significantly more degrees of freedom compared to axis-aligned projections. Nevertheless, interpreting the axes directions, which are linear combinations often with many non-trivial components, remains difficult. To address this problem we introduce a structure aware decomposition of (multiple) linear projections into sparse sets of axis aligned projections, which jointly capture all information of the original linear ones. In particular, we use tools from Dempster-Shafer theory to formally define how relevant a given axis aligned project is to explain the neighborhood relations displayed in some linear projection. Furthermore, we introduce a new approach to discover a diverse set of high quality linear projections and show that in practice the information of $k$ linear projections is often jointly encoded in $\sim k$ axis aligned plots. We have integrated these ideas into an interactive visualization system that allows users to jointly browse both linear projections and their axis aligned representatives. Using a number of case studies we show how the resulting plots lead to more intuitive visualizations and new insight.


t-viSNE: Interactive Assessment and Interpretation of t-SNE Projections

arXiv.org Machine Learning

t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE) for the visualization of multidimensional data has proven to be a popular approach, with successful applications in a wide range of domains. Despite their usefulness, t-SNE projections can be hard to interpret or even misleading, which hurts the trustworthiness of the results. Understanding the details of t-SNE itself and the reasons behind specific patterns in its output may be a daunting task, especially for non-experts in dimensionality reduction. In this work, we present t-viSNE, an interactive tool for the visual exploration of t-SNE projections that enables analysts to inspect different aspects of their accuracy and meaning, such as the effects of hyper-parameters, distance and neighborhood preservation, densities and costs of specific neighborhoods, and the correlations between dimensions and visual patterns. We propose a coherent, accessible, and well-integrated collection of different views for the visualization of t-SNE projections. The applicability and usability of t-viSNE are demonstrated through hypothetical usage scenarios with real data sets. Finally, we present the results of a user study where the tool's effectiveness was evaluated. By bringing to light information that would normally be lost after running t-SNE, we hope to support analysts in using t-SNE and making its results better understandable.


A Visual Interaction Framework for Dimensionality Reduction Based Data Exploration

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Dimensionality reduction is a common method for analyzing and visualizing high-dimensional data. However, reasoning dynamically about the results of a dimensionality reduction is difficult. Dimensionality-reduction algorithms use complex optimizations to reduce the number of dimensions of a dataset, but these new dimensions often lack a clear relation to the initial data dimensions, thus making them difficult to interpret. Here we propose a visual interaction framework to improve dimensionality-reduction based exploratory data analysis. We introduce two interaction techniques, forward projection and backward projection, for dynamically reasoning about dimensionally reduced data. We also contribute two visualization techniques, prolines and feasibility maps, to facilitate the effective use of the proposed interactions. We apply our framework to PCA and autoencoder-based dimensionality reductions. Through data-exploration examples, we demonstrate how our visual interactions can improve the use of dimensionality reduction in exploratory data analysis.