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TransOMCS: From Linguistic Graphs to Commonsense Knowledge

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Commonsense knowledge acquisition is a key problem for artificial intelligence. Conventional methods of acquiring commonsense knowledge generally require laborious and costly human annotations, which are not feasible on a large scale. In this paper, we explore a practical way of mining commonsense knowledge from linguistic graphs, with the goal of transferring cheap knowledge obtained with linguistic patterns into expensive commonsense knowledge. The result is a conversion of ASER [Zhang et al., 2020], a large-scale selectional preference knowledge resource, into TransOMCS, of the same representation as ConceptNet [Liu and Singh, 2004] but two orders of magnitude larger. Experimental results demonstrate the transferability of linguistic knowledge to commonsense knowledge and the effectiveness of the proposed approach in terms of quantity, novelty, and quality. TransOMCS is publicly available at: https://github.com/HKUST-KnowComp/TransOMCS.


COMET: Commonsense Transformers for Automatic Knowledge Graph Construction

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We present the first comprehensive study on automatic knowledge base construction for two prevalent commonsense knowledge graphs: ATOMIC (Sap et al., 2019) and ConceptNet (Speer et al., 2017). Contrary to many conventional KBs that store knowledge with canonical templates, commonsense KBs only store loosely structured open-text descriptions of knowledge. We posit that an important step toward automatic commonsense completion is the development of generative models of commonsense knowledge, and propose COMmonsEnse Transformers (COMET) that learn to generate rich and diverse commonsense descriptions in natural language. Despite the challenges of commonsense modeling, our investigation reveals promising results when implicit knowledge from deep pre-trained language models is transferred to generate explicit knowledge in commonsense knowledge graphs. Empirical results demonstrate that COMET is able to generate novel knowledge that humans rate as high quality, with up to 77.5% (ATOMIC) and 91.7% (ConceptNet) precision at top 1, which approaches human performance for these resources. Our findings suggest that using generative commonsense models for automatic commonsense KB completion could soon be a plausible alternative to extractive methods.


Formalizations of Commonsense Psychology

AI Magazine

The central challenge in commonsense knowledge representation research is to develop content theories that achieve a high degree of both competency and coverage. We describe a new methodology for constructing formal theories in commonsense knowledge domains that complements traditional knowledge representation approaches by first addressing issues of coverage. These concepts are sorted into a manageable number of coherent domains, one of which is the representational area of commonsense human memory. These representational areas are then analyzed using more traditional knowledge representation techniques, as demonstrated in this article by our treatment of commonsense human memory.


Exploring and Analyzing Machine Commonsense Benchmarks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Commonsense question-answering (QA) tasks, in the form of benchmarks, are constantly being introduced for challenging and comparing commonsense QA systems. The benchmarks provide question sets that systems' developers can use to train and test new models before submitting their implementations to official leaderboards. Although these tasks are created to evaluate systems in identified dimensions (e.g. topic, reasoning type), this metadata is limited and largely presented in an unstructured format or completely not present. Because machine common sense is a fast-paced field, the problem of fully assessing current benchmarks and systems with regards to these evaluation dimensions is aggravated. We argue that the lack of a common vocabulary for aligning these approaches' metadata limits researchers in their efforts to understand systems' deficiencies and in making effective choices for future tasks. In this paper, we first discuss this MCS ecosystem in terms of its elements and their metadata. Then, we present how we are supporting the assessment of approaches by initially focusing on commonsense benchmarks. We describe our initial MCS Benchmark Ontology, an extensible common vocabulary that formalizes benchmark metadata, and showcase how it is supporting the development of a Benchmark tool that enables benchmark exploration and analysis.


A Benchmark Arabic Dataset for Commonsense Explanation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Language comprehension and commonsense knowledge validation by machines are challenging tasks that are still under researched and evaluated for Arabic text. In this paper, we present a benchmark Arabic dataset for commonsense explanation. The dataset consists of Arabic sentences that does not make sense along with three choices to select among them the one that explains why the sentence is false. Furthermore, this paper presents baseline results to assist and encourage the future evaluation of research in this field. The dataset is distributed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 4.0 license and can be found on GitHub