XNLI: Evaluating Cross-lingual Sentence Representations

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

State-of-the-art natural language processing systems rely on supervision in the form of annotated data to learn competent models. These models are generally trained on data in a single language (usually English), and cannot be directly used beyond that language. Since collecting data in every language is not realistic, there has been a growing interest in cross-lingual language understanding (XLU) and low-resource cross-language transfer. In this work, we construct an evaluation set for XLU by extending the development and test sets of the Multi-Genre Natural Language Inference Corpus (MultiNLI) to 15 languages, including low-resource languages such as Swahili and Urdu. We hope that our dataset, dubbed XNLI, will catalyze research in cross-lingual sentence understanding by providing an informative standard evaluation task. In addition, we provide several baselines for multilingual sentence understanding, including two based on machine translation systems, and two that use parallel data to train aligned multilingual bag-of-words and LSTM encoders. We find that XNLI represents a practical and challenging evaluation suite, and that directly translating the test data yields the best performance among available baselines.

Margin-based Parallel Corpus Mining with Multilingual Sentence Embeddings

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Machine translation is highly sensitive to the size and quality of the training data, which has led to an increasing interest in collecting and filtering large parallel corpora. In this paper, we propose a new method for this task based on multilingual sentence embeddings. Our approach uses an encoder-decoder trained over an initial parallel corpus to build multilingual sentence representations, which are then incorporated into a new margin-based method to score, mine and filter parallel sentences. In contrast to previous approaches, which rely on nearest neighbor retrieval with a hard threshold over cosine similarity, our proposed method accounts for the scale inconsistencies of this measure, considering the margin between a given sentence pair and its closest candidates instead. Our experiments show large improvements over existing methods. We outperform the best published results on the BUCC shared task on parallel corpus mining by more than 10 F1 points. We also improve the precision from 48.9 to 83.3 on the reconstruction of 11.3M English-French sentence pairs of the UN corpus. Finally, filtering the English-German ParaCrawl corpus with our approach, we obtain 31.2 BLEU points on newstest2014, an improvement of more than one point over the best official filtered version.

KG^2: Learning to Reason Science Exam Questions with Contextual Knowledge Graph Embeddings

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The AI2 Reasoning Challenge (ARC), a new benchmark dataset for question answering (QA) has been recently released. ARC only contains natural science questions authored for human exams, which are hard to answer and require advanced logic reasoning. On the ARC Challenge Set, existing state-of-the-art QA systems fail to significantly outperform random baseline, reflecting the difficult nature of this task. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for answering science exam questions, which mimics human solving process in an open-book exam. To address the reasoning challenge, we construct contextual knowledge graphs respectively for the question itself and supporting sentences. Our model learns to reason with neural embeddings of both knowledge graphs. Experiments on the ARC Challenge Set show that our model outperforms the previous state-of-the-art QA systems.

Method for Building Sentence-Aligned Corpus from Wikipedia

AAAI Conferences

We propose the framework of a Machine Translation (MT) bootstrapping method by using multilingual Wikipedia articles. This novel method can simultaneously generate a statistical machine translation (SMT) and a sentence-aligned corpus. In this study, we perform two types of experiments. The aim of the first type of experiments is to verify the sentence alignment performance by comparing the proposed method with a conventional sentence alignment approach. For the first type of experiments, we use JENAAD, which is a sentence-aligned corpus built by the conventional sentence alignment method. The second type of experiments uses actual English and Japanese Wikipedia articles for sentence alignment. The result of the first type of experiments shows that the performance of the proposed method is comparable to that of the conventional sentence alignment method. Additionally, the second type of experiments shows that we can obtain the English translation of 10% of Japanese sentences while maintaining high alignment quality (rank-A ratio of over 0.8).

Continual Learning for Sentence Representations Using Conceptors

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Distributed representations of sentences have become ubiquitous in natural language processing tasks. In this paper, we consider a continual learning scenario for sentence representations: Given a sequence of corpora, we aim to optimize the sentence encoder with respect to the new corpus while maintaining its accuracy on the old corpora. To address this problem, we propose to initialize sentence encoders with the help of corpus-independent features, and then sequentially update sentence encoders using Boolean operations of conceptor matrices to learn corpus-dependent features. We evaluate our approach on semantic textual similarity tasks and show that our proposed sentence encoder can continually learn features from new corpora while retaining its competence on previously encountered corpora.