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Data Augmentation in Natural Language Processing: A Novel Text Generation Approach for Long and Short Text Classifiers

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In many cases of machine learning, research suggests that the development of training data might have a higher relevance than the choice and modelling of classifiers themselves. Thus, data augmentation methods have been developed to improve classifiers by artificially created training data. In NLP, there is the challenge of establishing universal rules for text transformations which provide new linguistic patterns. In this paper, we present and evaluate a text generation method suitable to increase the performance of classifiers for long and short texts. We achieved promising improvements when evaluating short as well as long text tasks with the enhancement by our text generation method. In a simulated low data regime additive accuracy gains of up to 15.53% are achieved. As the current track of these constructed regimes is not universally applicable, we also show major improvements in several real world low data tasks (up to +4.84 F1 score). Since we are evaluating the method from many perspectives, we also observe situations where the method might not be suitable. We discuss implications and patterns for the successful application of our approach on different types of datasets.


On Feature Normalization and Data Augmentation

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Modern neural network training relies heavily on data augmentation for improved generalization. After the initial success of label-preserving augmentations, there has been a recent surge of interest in label-perturbing approaches, which combine features and labels across training samples to smooth the learned decision surface. In this paper, we propose a new augmentation method that leverages the first and second moments extracted and re-injected by feature normalization. We replace the moments of the learned features of one training image by those of another, and also interpolate the target labels. As our approach is fast, operates entirely in feature space, and mixes different signals than prior methods, one can effectively combine it with existing augmentation methods. We demonstrate its efficacy across benchmark data sets in computer vision, speech, and natural language processing, where it consistently improves the generalization performance of highly competitive baseline networks.


ALP: Data Augmentation using Lexicalized PCFGs for Few-Shot Text Classification

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Data augmentation has been an important ingredient for boosting performances of learned models. Prior data augmentation methods for few-shot text classification have led to great performance boosts. However, they have not been designed to capture the intricate compositional structure of natural language. As a result, they fail to generate samples with plausible and diverse sentence structures. Motivated by this, we present the data Augmentation using Lexicalized Probabilistic context-free grammars (ALP) that generates augmented samples with diverse syntactic structures with plausible grammar. The lexicalized PCFG parse trees consider both the constituents and dependencies to produce a syntactic frame that maximizes a variety of word choices in a syntactically preservable manner without specific domain experts. Experiments on few-shot text classification tasks demonstrate that ALP enhances many state-of-the-art classification methods. As a second contribution, we delve into the train-val splitting methodologies when a data augmentation method comes into play. We argue empirically that the traditional splitting of training and validation sets is sub-optimal compared to our novel augmentation-based splitting strategies that further expand the training split with the same number of labeled data. Taken together, our contributions on the data augmentation strategies yield a strong training recipe for few-shot text classification tasks.


EDDA: Explanation-driven Data Augmentation to Improve Model and Explanation Alignment

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recent years have seen the introduction of a range of methods for post-hoc explainability of image classifier predictions. However, these post-hoc explanations may not always align perfectly with classifier predictions, which poses a significant challenge when attempting to debug models based on such explanations. To this end, we seek a methodology that can improve alignment between model predictions and explanation method that is both agnostic to the model and explanation classes and which does not require ground truth explanations. We achieve this through a novel explanation-driven data augmentation (EDDA) method that augments the training data with occlusions of existing data stemming from model-explanations; this is based on the simple motivating principle that occluding salient regions for the model prediction should decrease the model confidence in the prediction, while occluding non-salient regions should not change the prediction -- if the model and explainer are aligned. To verify that this augmentation method improves model and explainer alignment, we evaluate the methodology on a variety of datasets, image classification models, and explanation methods. We verify in all cases that our explanation-driven data augmentation method improves alignment of the model and explanation in comparison to no data augmentation and non-explanation driven data augmentation methods. In conclusion, this approach provides a novel model- and explainer-agnostic methodology for improving alignment between model predictions and explanations, which we see as a critical step forward for practical deployment and debugging of image classification models.


Offline Data Augmentation for multiple images in Python

#artificialintelligence

Can you increase the number of images in any dataset? Machine learning, Deep learning, Artificial intelligence all require large amounts of data. However, data is not always available in every case. The programmer needs to work with the small amount of data available. Hence the use of data augmentation came into the picture.