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Variational Graph Recurrent Neural Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Representation learning over graph structured data has been mostly studied in static graph settings while efforts for modeling dynamic graphs are still scant. In this paper, we develop a novel hierarchical variational model that introduces additional latent random variables to jointly model the hidden states of a graph recurrent neural network (GRNN) to capture both topology and node attribute changes in dynamic graphs. We argue that the use of high-level latent random variables in this variational GRNN (VGRNN) can better capture potential variability observed in dynamic graphs as well as the uncertainty of node latent representation. With semi-implicit variational inference developed for this new VGRNN architecture (SI-VGRNN), we show that flexible non-Gaussian latent representations can further help dynamic graph analytic tasks. Our experiments with multiple real-world dynamic graph datasets demonstrate that SI-VGRNN and VGRNN consistently outperform the existing baseline and state-of-the-art methods by a significant margin in dynamic link prediction.


Non-stationary continuous dynamic Bayesian networks

Neural Information Processing Systems

Dynamic Bayesian networks have been applied widely to reconstruct the structure of regulatory processes from time series data. The standard approach is based on the assumption of a homogeneous Markov chain, which is not valid in many real-world scenarios. Recent research efforts addressing this shortcoming have considered undirected graphs, directed graphs for discretized data, or over-flexible models that lack any information sharing between time series segments. In the present article, we propose a non-stationary dynamic Bayesian network for continuous data, in which parameters are allowed to vary between segments, and in which a common network structure provides essential information sharing across segments. Our model is based on a Bayesian change-point process, and we apply a variant of the allocation sampler of Nobile and Fearnside to infer the number and location of the change-points.


EvoNet: A Neural Network for Predicting the Evolution of Dynamic Graphs

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Neural networks for structured data like graphs have been studied extensively in recent years. To date, the bulk of research activity has focused mainly on static graphs. However, most real-world networks are dynamic since their topology tends to change over time. Predicting the evolution of dynamic graphs is a task of high significance in the area of graph mining. Despite its practical importance, the task has not been explored in depth so far, mainly due to its challenging nature. In this paper, we propose a model that predicts the evolution of dynamic graphs. Specifically, we use a graph neural network along with a recurrent architecture to capture the temporal evolution patterns of dynamic graphs. Then, we employ a generative model which predicts the topology of the graph at the next time step and constructs a graph instance that corresponds to that topology. We evaluate the proposed model on several artificial datasets following common network evolving dynamics, as well as on real-world datasets. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.


A Simple Proof of the Universality of Invariant/Equivariant Graph Neural Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We present a simple proof for the universality of invariant and equivariant tensorized graph neural networks. Our approach considers a restricted intermediate hypothetical model named Graph Homomorphism Model to reach the universality conclusions including an open case for higher-order output. We find that our proposed technique not only leads to simple proofs of the universality properties but also gives a natural explanation for the tensorization of the previously studied models. Finally, we give some remarks on the connection between our model and the continuous representation of graphs.


Towards Sparse Hierarchical Graph Classifiers

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recent advances in representation learning on graphs, mainly leveraging graph convolutional networks, have brought a substantial improvement on many graph-based benchmark tasks. While novel approaches to learning node embeddings are highly suitable for node classification and link prediction, their application to graph classification (predicting a single label for the entire graph) remains mostly rudimentary, typically using a single global pooling step to aggregate node features or a hand-designed, fixed heuristic for hierarchical coarsening of the graph structure. An important step towards ameliorating this is differentiable graph coarsening---the ability to reduce the size of the graph in an adaptive, data-dependent manner within a graph neural network pipeline, analogous to image downsampling within CNNs. However, the previous prominent approach to pooling has quadratic memory requirements during training and is therefore not scalable to large graphs. Here we combine several recent advances in graph neural network design to demonstrate that competitive hierarchical graph classification results are possible without sacrificing sparsity. Our results are verified on several established graph classification benchmarks, and highlight an important direction for future research in graph-based neural networks.