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Training Deep Networks without Learning Rates Through Coin Betting

Neural Information Processing Systems

Deep learning methods achieve state-of-the-art performance in many application scenarios. Yet, these methods require a significant amount of hyperparameters tuning in order to achieve the best results. In particular, tuning the learning rates in the stochastic optimization process is still one of the main bottlenecks. In this paper, we propose a new stochastic gradient descent procedure for deep networks that does not require any learning rate setting. Contrary to previous methods, we do not adapt the learning rates nor we make use of the assumed curvature of the objective function.


Where Does Trust Break Down? A Quantitative Trust Analysis of Deep Neural Networks via Trust Matrix and Conditional Trust Densities

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The advances and successes in deep learning in recent years have led to considerable efforts and investments into its widespread ubiquitous adoption for a wide variety of applications, ranging from personal assistants and intelligent navigation to search and product recommendation in e-commerce. With this tremendous rise in deep learning adoption comes questions about the trustworthiness of the deep neural networks that power these applications. Motivated to answer such questions, there has been a very recent interest in trust quantification. In this work, we introduce the concept of trust matrix, a novel trust quantification strategy that leverages the recently introduced question-answer trust metric by Wong et al. to provide deeper, more detailed insights into where trust breaks down for a given deep neural network given a set of questions. More specifically, a trust matrix defines the expected question-answer trust for a given actor-oracle answer scenario, allowing one to quickly spot areas of low trust that needs to be addressed to improve the trustworthiness of a deep neural network. The proposed trust matrix is simple to calculate, humanly interpretable, and to the best of the authors' knowledge is the first to study trust at the actor-oracle answer level. We further extend the concept of trust densities with the notion of conditional trust densities. We experimentally leverage trust matrices to study several well-known deep neural network architectures for image recognition, and further study the trust density and conditional trust densities for an interesting actor-oracle answer scenario. The results illustrate that trust matrices, along with conditional trust densities, can be useful tools in addition to the existing suite of trust quantification metrics for guiding practitioners and regulators in creating and certifying deep learning solutions for trusted operation.


Machine learning non-local correlations

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The ability to witness non-local correlations lies at the core of foundational aspects of quantum mechanics and its application in the processing of information. Commonly, this is achieved via the violation of Bell inequalities. Unfortunately, however, their systematic derivation quickly becomes unfeasible as the scenario of interest grows in complexity. To cope with that, we propose here a machine learning approach for the detection and quantification of non-locality. It consists of an ensemble of multilayer perceptrons blended with genetic algorithms achieving a high performance in a number of relevant Bell scenarios. Our results offer a novel method and a proof-of-principle for the relevance of machine learning for understanding non-locality.


Domain Separation Networks

Neural Information Processing Systems

The cost of large scale data collection and annotation often makes the application of machine learning algorithms to new tasks or datasets prohibitively expensive. One approach circumventing this cost is training models on synthetic data where annotations are provided automatically. Despite their appeal, such models often fail to generalize from synthetic to real images, necessitating domain adaptation algorithms to manipulate these models before they can be successfully applied. Existing approaches focus either on mapping representations from one domain to the other, or on learning to extract features that are invariant to the domain from which they were extracted. However, by focusing only on creating a mapping or shared representation between the two domains, they ignore the individual characteristics of each domain. We hypothesize that explicitly modeling what is unique to each domain can improve a model's ability to extract domain-invariant features. Inspired by work on private-shared component analysis, we explicitly learn to extract image representations that are partitioned into two subspaces: one component which is private to each domain and one which is shared across domains. Our model is trained to not only perform the task we care about in the source domain, but also to use the partitioned representation to reconstruct the images from both domains. Our novel architecture results in a model that outperforms the state-of-the-art on a range of unsupervised domain adaptation scenarios and additionally produces visualizations of the private and shared representations enabling interpretation of the domain adaptation process.


Uncertainty-Aware Learning from Demonstration using Mixture Density Networks with Sampling-Free Variance Modeling

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we propose an uncertainty-aware learning from demonstration method by presenting a novel uncertainty estimation method utilizing a mixture density network appropriate for modeling complex and noisy human behaviors. The proposed uncertainty acquisition can be done with a single forward path without Monte Carlo sampling and is suitable for real-time robotics applications. The properties of the proposed uncertainty measure are analyzed through three different synthetic examples, absence of data, heavy measurement noise, and composition of functions scenarios. We show that each case can be distinguished using the proposed uncertainty measure and presented an uncertainty-aware learn- ing from demonstration method of an autonomous driving using this property. The proposed uncertainty-aware learning from demonstration method outperforms other compared methods in terms of safety using a complex real-world driving dataset.