Wang, Nan, Melchior, Jan, Wiskott, Laurenz

We present a theoretical analysis of Gaussian-binary restricted Boltzmann machines (GRBMs) from the perspective of density models. The key aspect of this analysis is to show that GRBMs can be formulated as a constrained mixture of Gaussians, which gives a much better insight into the model's capabilities and limitations. We show that GRBMs are capable of learning meaningful features both in a two-dimensional blind source separation task and in modeling natural images. Further, we show that reported difficulties in training GRBMs are due to the failure of the training algorithm rather than the model itself. Based on our analysis we are able to propose several training recipes, which allowed successful and fast training in our experiments. Finally, we discuss the relationship of GRBMs to several modifications that have been proposed to improve the model.

This article is intended for beginners in deep learning who wish to gain knowledge about probability and statistics and also as a reference for practitioners. In my previous article, I wrote about the concepts of linear algebra for deep learning in a top down approach ( link for the article) (If you do not have enough idea about linear algebra, please read that first).The same top down approach is used here.Providing the description of use cases first and then the concepts. All the example code uses python and numpy.Formulas are provided as images for reuse. Probability is the science of quantifying uncertain things.Most of machine learning and deep learning systems utilize a lot of data to learn about patterns in the data.Whenever data is utilized in a system rather than sole logic, uncertainty grows up and whenever uncertainty grows up, probability becomes relevant. By introducing probability to a deep learning system, we introduce common sense to the system.Otherwise the system would be very brittle and will not be useful.In deep learning, several models like bayesian models, probabilistic graphical models, hidden markov models are used.They depend entirely on probability concepts.

Kaplan, Andee, Nordman, Daniel, Vardeman, Stephen

A restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) is an undirected graphical model constructed for discrete or continuous random variables, with two layers, one hidden and one visible, and no conditional dependency within a layer. In recent years, RBMs have risen to prominence due to their connection to deep learning. By treating a hidden layer of one RBM as the visible layer in a second RBM, a deep architecture can be created. RBMs are thought to thereby have the ability to encode very complex and rich structures in data, making them attractive for supervised learning. However, the generative behavior of RBMs is largely unexplored. In this paper, we discuss the relationship between RBM parameter specification in the binary case and model properties such as degeneracy, instability and uninterpretability. We also describe the difficulties that arise in likelihood-based and Bayes fitting of such (highly flexible) models, especially as Gibbs sampling (quasi-Bayes) methods are often advocated for the RBM model structure.

Osogami, Takayuki, Otsuka, Makoto

We extend the multinomial logit model to represent some of the empirical phenomena that are frequently observed in the choices made by humans. These phenomena include the similarity effect, the attraction effect, and the compromise effect. We formally quantify the strength of these phenomena that can be represented by our choice model, which illuminates the flexibility of our choice model. We then show that our choice model can be represented as a restricted Boltzmann machine and that its parameters can be learned effectively from data. Our numerical experiments with real data of human choices suggest that we can train our choice model in such a way that it represents the typical phenomena of choice.

Desjardins, Guillaume, Pascanu, Razvan, Courville, Aaron, Bengio, Yoshua

This paper introduces the Metric-Free Natural Gradient (MFNG) algorithm for training Boltzmann Machines. Similar in spirit to the Hessian-Free method of Martens [8], our algorithm belongs to the family of truncated Newton methods and exploits an efficient matrix-vector product to avoid explicitely storing the natural gradient metric $L$. This metric is shown to be the expected second derivative of the log-partition function (under the model distribution), or equivalently, the variance of the vector of partial derivatives of the energy function. We evaluate our method on the task of joint-training a 3-layer Deep Boltzmann Machine and show that MFNG does indeed have faster per-epoch convergence compared to Stochastic Maximum Likelihood with centering, though wall-clock performance is currently not competitive.