Collaborating Authors

Comparing Generative Adversarial Network Techniques for Image Creation and Modification Machine Learning

Generative adversarial networks (GANs) have demonstrated to be successful at generating realistic real-world images. In this paper we compare various GAN techniques, both supervised and unsupervised. The effects on training stability of different objective functions are compared. We add an encoder to the network, making it possible to encode images to the latent space of the GAN. The generator, discriminator and encoder are parameterized by deep convolutional neural networks. For the discriminator network we experimented with using the novel Capsule Network, a state-of-the-art technique for detecting global features in images. Experiments are performed using a digit and face dataset, with various visualizations illustrating the results. The results show that using the encoder network it is possible to reconstruct images. With the conditional GAN we can alter visual attributes of generated or encoded images. The experiments with the Capsule Network as discriminator result in generated images of a lower quality, compared to a standard convolutional neural network.

Pioneer Networks: Progressively Growing Generative Autoencoder Machine Learning

We introduce a novel generative autoencoder network model that learns to encode and reconstruct images with high quality and resolution, and supports smooth random sampling from the latent space of the encoder. Generative adversarial networks (GANs) are known for their ability to simulate random high-quality images, but they cannot reconstruct existing images. Previous works have attempted to extend GANs to support such inference but, so far, have not delivered satisfactory high-quality results. Instead, we propose the Progressively Growing Generative Autoencoder (PIONEER) network which achieves high-quality reconstruction with $128{\times}128$ images without requiring a GAN discriminator. We merge recent techniques for progressively building up the parts of the network with the recently introduced adversarial encoder-generator network. The ability to reconstruct input images is crucial in many real-world applications, and allows for precise intelligent manipulation of existing images. We show promising results in image synthesis and inference, with state-of-the-art results in CelebA inference tasks.

Causal Adversarial Network for Learning Conditional and Interventional Distributions Machine Learning

We propose a generative Causal Adversarial Network (CAN) for learning and sampling from conditional and interventional distributions. In contrast to the existing CausalGAN which requires the causal graph to be given, our proposed framework learns the causal relations from the data and generates samples accordingly. The proposed CAN comprises a two-fold process namely Label Generation Network (LGN) and Conditional Image Generation Network (CIGN). The LGN is a GAN-based architecture which learns and samples from the causal model over labels. The sampled labels are then fed to CIGN, a conditional GAN architecture, which learns the relationships amongst labels and pixels and pixels themselves and generates samples based on them. This framework is equipped with an intervention mechanism which enables. the model to generate samples from interventional distributions. We quantitatively and qualitatively assess the performance of CAN and empirically show that our model is able to generate both interventional and conditional samples without having access to the causal graph for the application of face generation on CelebA data.

Implicit Discriminator in Variational Autoencoder Machine Learning

Recently generative models have focused on combining the advantages of variational autoencoders (VAE) and generative adversarial networks (GAN) for good reconstruction and generative abilities. In this work we introduce a novel hybrid architecture, Implicit Discriminator in V aria-tional Autoencoder (IDVAE), that combines a VAE and a GAN, which does not need an explicit discriminator network. The fundamental premise of the IDVAE architecture is that the encoder of a VAE and the discriminator of a GAN utilize common features and therefore can be trained as a shared network, while the decoder of the VAE and the generator of the GAN can be combined to learn a single network. This results in a simple two-tier architecture that has the properties of both a VAE and a GAN. The qualitative and quantitative experiments on real-world benchmark datasets demonstrates that IDVAE perform better than the state of the art hybrid approaches. W e experimentally validate that IDVAE can be easily extended to work in a conditional setting and demonstrate its performance on complex datasets.

Text2FaceGAN: Face Generation from Fine Grained Textual Descriptions Machine Learning

--Powerful generative adversarial networks (GAN) have been developed to automatically synthesize realistic images from text. However, most existing tasks are limited to generating simple images such as flowers from captions. In this work, we extend this problem to the less addressed domain of face generation from fine-grained textual descriptions of face, e.g., "A person has curly hair, oval face, and mustache" . We are motivated by the potential of automated face generation to impact and assist critical tasks such as criminal face reconstruction. Since current datasets for the task are either very small or do not contain captions, we generate captions for images in the CelebA dataset by creating an algorithm to automatically convert a list of attributes to a set of captions. We then model the highly multi-modal problem of text to face generation as learning the conditional distribution of faces (conditioned on text) in same latent space. We utilize the current state-of-the-art GAN (DC-GAN with GAN-CLS loss) for learning conditional multi-modality. The presence of more fine-grained details and variable length of the captions makes the problem easier for a user but more difficult to handle compared to the other text-to-image tasks. We flipped the labels for real and fake images and added noise in discriminator . Generated images for diverse textual descriptions show promising results. In the end, we show how the widely used inceptions score is not a good metric to evaluate the performance of generative models used for synthesizing faces from text. I NTRODUCTION Photographic text-to-face synthesis is a mainstream problem with potential applications in image editing, video games, or for accessibility.