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Diagnosis of liver disease using computer-assisted imaging techniques: A Review

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The evidence says that liver disease detection using CAD is one of the most efficient techniques but the presence of better organization of studies and the performance parameters to represent the result analysis of the proposed techniques are pointedly missing in most of the recent studies. Few benchmarked studies have been found in some of the papers as benchmarking makes a reader understand that under which circumstances their experimental results or outcomes are better and useful for the future implementation and adoption of the work. Liver diseases and image processing algorithms, especially in medicine, are the most important and important topics of the day. Unfortunately, the necessary data and data, as they are invoked in the articles, are low in this area and require the revision and implementation of policies in order to gather and do more research in this field. Detection with ultrasound is quite normal in liver diseases and depends on the physician's experience and skills. CAD systems are very important for doctors to understand medical images and improve the accuracy of diagnosing various diseases. In the following, we describe the techniques used in the various stages of a CAD system, namely: extracting features, selecting features, and classifying them. Although there are many techniques that are used to classify medical images, it is still a challenging issue for creating a universally accepted approach.


Generalized Learning with Rejection for Classification and Regression Problems

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Learning with rejection (LWR) allows development of machine learning systems with the ability to discard low confidence decisions generated by a prediction model. That is, just like human experts, LWR allows machine models to abstain from generating a prediction when reliability of the prediction is expected to be low. Several frameworks for this learning with rejection have been proposed in the literature. However, most of them work for classification problems only and regression with rejection has not been studied in much detail. In this work, we present a neural framework for LWR based on a generalized meta-loss function that involves simultaneous training of two neural network models: a predictor model for generating predictions and a rejecter model for deciding whether the prediction should be accepted or rejected. The proposed framework can be used for classification as well as regression and other related machine learning tasks. We have demonstrated the applicability and effectiveness of the method on synthetically generated data as well as benchmark datasets from UCI machine learning repository for both classification and regression problems. Despite being simpler in implementation, the proposed scheme for learning with rejection has shown to perform at par or better than previously proposed methods. Furthermore, we have applied the method to the problem of hurricane intensity prediction from satellite imagery. Significant improvement in performance as compared to conventional supervised methods shows the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in real-world regression problems.


A Scalable Machine Learning Approach for Inferring Probabilistic US-LI-RADS Categorization

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We propose a scalable computerized approach for large-scale inference of Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) final assessment categories in narrative ultrasound (US) reports. Although our model was trained on reports created using a LI-RADS template, it was also able to infer LI-RADS scoring for unstructured reports that were created before the LI-RADS guidelines were established. No human-labelled data was required in any step of this study; for training, LI-RADS scores were automatically extracted from those reports that contained structured LI-RADS scores, and it translated the derived knowledge to reasoning on unstructured radiology reports. By providing automated LI-RADS categorization, our approach may enable standardizing screening recommendations and treatment planning of patients at risk for hepatocellular carcinoma, and it may facilitate AI-based healthcare research with US images by offering large scale text mining and data gathering opportunities from standard hospital clinical data repositories.


Deep Learning in Ultrasound Elastography Imaging

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

It is known that changes in the mechanical properties of tissues are associated with the onset and progression of certain diseases. Ultrasound elastography is a technique to characterize tissue stiffness using ultrasound imaging either by measuring tissue strain using quasi-static elastography or natural organ pulsation elastography, or by tracing a propagated shear wave induced by a source or a natural vibration using dynamic elastography. In recent years, deep learning has begun to emerge in ultrasound elastography research. In this review, several common deep learning frameworks in the computer vision community, such as multilayer perceptron, convolutional neural network, and recurrent neural network are described. Then, recent advances in ultrasound elastography using such deep learning techniques are revisited in terms of algorithm development and clinical diagnosis. Finally, the current challenges and future developments of deep learning in ultrasound elastography are prospected.


Machine Learning and Deep Learning Methods for Building Intelligent Systems in Medicine and Drug Discovery: A Comprehensive Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

With the advancements in computer technology, there is a rapid development of intelligent systems to understand the complex relationships in data to make predictions and classifications. Artificail Intelligence based framework is rapidly revolutionizing the healthcare industry. These intelligent systems are built with machine learning and deep learning based robust models for early diagnosis of diseases and demonstrates a promising supplementary diagnostic method for frontline clinical doctors and surgeons. Machine Learning and Deep Learning based systems can streamline and simplify the steps involved in diagnosis of diseases from clinical and image-based data, thus providing significant clinician support and workflow optimization. They mimic human cognition and are even capable of diagnosing diseases that cannot be diagnosed with human intelligence. This paper focuses on the survey of machine learning and deep learning applications in across 16 medical specialties, namely Dental medicine, Haematology, Surgery, Cardiology, Pulmonology, Orthopedics, Radiology, Oncology, General medicine, Psychiatry, Endocrinology, Neurology, Dermatology, Hepatology, Nephrology, Ophthalmology, and Drug discovery. In this paper along with the survey, we discuss the advancements of medical practices with these systems and also the impact of these systems on medical professionals.