In this paper we present a new method for motion tracking of tumors in liver ultrasound image sequences. Our algorithm has two main steps. In the first step, we apply mean shift algorithm with multiple features to estimate the center of the target in each frame. Target in the first frame is defined using an ellipse. Edge, texture, and intensity features are extracted from the first frame, and then mean shift algorithm is applied to each feature separately to find the center of ellipse related to that feature in the next frame. The center of ellipse will be the weighted average of these centers. By using mean shift actually we estimate the target movement between two consecutive frames. Once the correct ellipsoid in each frame is known, in the second step we apply the Dynamic Directional Gradient Vector Flow (DDGVF) version of active contour models, in order to find the correct boundary of tumors. We sample a few points on the boundary of active contour then translate those points based on the translation of the center of ellipsoid in two consecutive frames to determine the target movement. We use these translated sample points as an initial guess for active contour in the next frame. Our experimental results show that, the suggested method provides a reliable performance for liver tumor tracking in ultrasound image sequences.
Many medical imaging techniques have played a pivotal role in the early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases, such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, positron emission tomography (PET), mammography, and X-ray. AI has made significant progress which allows machines to automatically represent and explain complicated data. It is widely applied in the medical field, especially in some domains that need imaging data analysis. According to Vivantil et al by using deep learning models based on longitudinal liver CT studies, new liver tumours could be detected automatically with a true positive rate of 86%, while the stand-alone detection rate was only 72% and this method achieved a precision of 87% and an improvement of 39% over the traditional SVM mode. CNN models which use ultrasound images to detect liver lesions were also developed. According to Liu et al by using a CNN model based on liver ultrasound images, the proposed method can effectively extract the liver capsules and accurately diagnose liver cirrhosis, with the diagnostic AUC being able to reach 0.968.
People with liver disease may soon live for decades longer - as scientists have created a virus that targets damaged cells in the organ and converts them into healthy ones. More than 100,000 people in the US die every year from chronic liver disease and cirrhosis - where the liver becomes irreparably scarred and stops working. And cirrhosis - which particularly affects heavy drinkers - kills 10,000 people a year in the UK. But now, a team of researchers at University College San Francisco have developed a way of converting cells damaged by toxins, called myofibroblasts, into healthy cells, called hepatocytes. In years to come, the technique could buy patients time - possibly preventing the need for a transplant - and helping them to live for years longer, researchers said.
Fully functional mini human livers have been created from skin cells and transplanted into rats for the first time - giving hope for future organ transplants. These mini livers secrete bile acids and urea, just like a normal liver, except they're made-to-order in the lab using cells taken from the patient set to get the organ. Organs grown from the DNA of a human recipient could pave the way for alternatives to current donor transplants, researchers claim. The team say the lab-made organs survived for four days inside their animal hosts. These mini livers secrete bile acids and urea, just like a normal liver, except they're made-to-order in the lab using cells taken from the patient set to get the organ The team reprogrammed human skin cells into stem cells and then coaxed those cells to become various types of liver cells that could grow into a functional liver.
A liver grown in the lymph nodes of a pig could bring hope to patients dealing with liver disease, according to a new study. Researchers out of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine showed that pigs with damaged livers were able to use their own hepatocytes - a type of liver cell that functions as a natural regenerator, to grow a new organ in their lymph nodes, according to the study in journal Liver Transplantation. "It's all about location, location, location," senior study author Eric Lagasse, Pharm.D., Ph.D., stated in a press release. "If hepatocytes get in the right spot and there is a need for liver functions, they will form an ectopic liver in the lymph node," Lagasse, also an associate professor of pathology at the University of Pittsburgh, stated in a news release. Researchers showed that pigs with damaged livers were able to use their own hepatocytes, a type of liver cell that functions as a natural regenerator, to grow a new organ in their lymph node.