Graph kernels have recently emerged as a promising approach for tackling the graph similarity and learning tasks at the same time. In this paper, we propose a general framework for designing graph kernels. The proposed framework capitalizes on the well-known message passing scheme on graphs. The kernels derived from the framework consist of two components. The first component is a kernel between vertices, while the second component is a kernel between graphs. The main idea behind the proposed framework is that the representations of the vertices are implicitly updated using an iterative procedure. Then, these representations serve as the building blocks of a kernel that compares pairs of graphs. We derive four instances of the proposed framework, and show through extensive experiments that these instances are competitive with state-of-the-art methods in various tasks.
Nikolentzos, Giannis (Ecole Polytechnique and Athens University of Economics and Business) | Meladianos, Polykarpos (Ecole Polytechnique and Athens University of Economics and Business) | Vazirgiannis, Michalis (Ecole Polytechnique and Athens University of Economics and Business)
Graph kernels have emerged as a powerful tool for graph comparison. Most existing graph kernels focus on local properties of graphs and ignore global structure. In this paper, we compare graphs based on their global properties as these are captured by the eigenvectors of their adjacency matrices. We present two algorithms for both labeled and unlabeled graph comparison. These algorithms represent each graph as a set of vectors corresponding to the embeddings of its vertices. The similarity between two graphs is then determined using the Earth Mover's Distance metric. These similarities do not yield a positive semidefinite matrix. To address for this, we employ an algorithm for SVM classification using indefinite kernels. We also present a graph kernel based on the Pyramid Match kernel that finds an approximate correspondence between the sets of vectors of the two graphs. We further improve the proposed kernel using the Weisfeiler-Lehman framework. We evaluate the proposed methods on several benchmark datasets for graph classification and compare their performance to state-of-the-art graph kernels. In most cases, the proposed algorithms outperform the competing methods, while their time complexity remains very attractive.
This paper proposes a new Quantum Spatial Graph Convolutional Neural Network (QSGCNN) model that can directly learn a classification function for graphs of arbitrary sizes. Unlike state-of-the-art Graph Convolutional Neural Network (GCNN) models, the proposed QSGCNN model incorporates the process of identifying transitive aligned vertices between graphs, and transforms arbitrary sized graphs into fixed-sized aligned vertex grid structures. In order to learn representative graph characteristics, a new quantum spatial graph convolution is proposed and employed to extract multi-scale vertex features, in terms of quantum information propagation between grid vertices of each graph. Since the quantum spatial convolution preserves the grid structures of the input vertices (i.e., the convolution layer does not change the original spatial sequence of vertices), the proposed QSGCNN model allows to directly employ the traditional convolutional neural network architecture to further learn from the global graph topology, providing an end-to-end deep learning architecture that integrates the graph representation and learning in the quantum spatial graph convolution layer and the traditional convolutional layer for graph classifications. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed QSGCNN model in relation to existing state-of-the-art methods. The proposed QSGCNN model addresses the shortcomings of information loss and imprecise information representation arising in existing GCN models associated with the use of SortPooling or SumPooling layers. Experiments on benchmark graph classification datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed QSGCNN model.
Graph kernels have attracted a lot of attention during the last decade, and have evolved into a rapidly developing branch of learning on structured data. During the past 20 years, the considerable research activity that occurred in the field resulted in the development of dozens of graph kernels, each focusing on specific structural properties of graphs. Graph kernels have proven successful in a wide range of domains, ranging from social networks to bioinformatics. The goal of this survey is to provide a unifying view of the literature on graph kernels. In particular, we present a comprehensive overview of a wide range of graph kernels. Furthermore, we perform an experimental evaluation of several of those kernels on publicly available datasets, and provide a comparative study. Finally, we discuss key applications of graph kernels, and outline some challenges that remain to be addressed.
We propose a deep Graph Neural Network (GNN) model that alternates two types of layers. The first type is inspired by Reservoir Computing (RC) and generates new vertex features by iterating a non-linear map until it converges to a fixed point. The second type of layer implements graph pooling operations, that gradually reduce the support graph and the vertex features, and further improve the computational efficiency of the RC-based GNN. The architecture is, therefore, pyramidal. In the last layer, the features of the remaining vertices are combined into a single vector, which represents the graph embedding. Through a mathematical derivation introduced in this paper, we show formally how graph pooling can reduce the computational complexity of the model and speed-up the convergence of the dynamical updates of the vertex features. Our proposed approach to the design of RC-based GNNs offers an advantageous and principled trade-off between accuracy and complexity, which we extensively demonstrate in experiments on a large set of graph datasets.