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Adversarial Examples: Attacks and Defenses for Deep Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

With rapid progress and great successes in a wide spectrum of applications, deep learning is being applied in many safety-critical environments. However, deep neural networks have been recently found vulnerable to well-designed input samples, called \textit{adversarial examples}. Adversarial examples are imperceptible to human but can easily fool deep neural networks in the testing/deploying stage. The vulnerability to adversarial examples becomes one of the major risks for applying deep neural networks in safety-critical scenarios. Therefore, the attacks and defenses on adversarial examples draw great attention. In this paper, we review recent findings on adversarial examples against deep neural networks, summarize the methods for generating adversarial examples, and propose a taxonomy of these methods. Under the taxonomy, applications and countermeasures for adversarial examples are investigated. We further elaborate on adversarial examples and explore the challenges and the potential solutions.


Mitigation of Adversarial Attacks through Embedded Feature Selection

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Machine learning has become one of the main components for task automation in many application domains. Despite the advancements and impressive achievements of machine learning, it has been shown that learning algorithms can be compromised by attackers both at training and test time. Machine learning systems are especially vulnerable to adversarial examples where small perturbations added to the original data points can produce incorrect or unexpected outputs in the learning algorithms at test time. Mitigation of these attacks is hard as adversarial examples are difficult to detect. Existing related work states that the security of machine learning systems against adversarial examples can be weakened when feature selection is applied to reduce the systems' complexity. In this paper, we empirically disprove this idea, showing that the relative distortion that the attacker has to introduce to succeed in the attack is greater when the target is using a reduced set of features. We also show that the minimal adversarial examples differ statistically more strongly from genuine examples with a lower number of features. However, reducing the feature count can negatively impact the system's performance. We illustrate the trade-off between security and accuracy with specific examples. We propose a design methodology to evaluate the security of machine learning classifiers with embedded feature selection against adversarial examples crafted using different attack strategies.


Procedural Noise Adversarial Examples for Black-Box Attacks on Deep Neural Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Deep neural networks have been shown to be vulnerable to adversarial examples, perturbed inputs that are designed specifically to produce intentional errors in the learning algorithms. However, existing attacks are either computationally expensive or require extensive knowledge of the target model and its dataset to succeed. Hence, these methods are not practical in a deployed adversarial setting. In this paper we introduce an exploratory approach for generating adversarial examples using procedural noise. We show that it is possible to construct practical black-box attacks with low computational cost against robust neural network architectures such as Inception v3 and Inception ResNet v2 on the ImageNet dataset. We show that these attacks successfully cause misclassification with a low number of queries, significantly outperforming state-of-the-art black box attacks. Our attack demonstrates the fragility of these neural networks to Perlin noise, a type of procedural noise used for generating realistic textures. Perlin noise attacks achieve at least 90% top 1 error across all classifiers. More worryingly, we show that most Perlin noise perturbations are "universal" in that they generalize, as adversarial examples, across large portions of the dataset, with up to 73% of images misclassified using a single perturbation. These findings suggest a systemic fragility of DNNs that needs to be explored further. We also show the limitations of adversarial training, a technique used to enhance the robustness against adversarial examples. Thus, the attacker just needs to change the perspective to generate the adversarial examples to craft successful attacks and, for the defender, it is difficult to foresee a priori all possible types of adversarial perturbations.


Decision-Based Adversarial Attacks: Reliable Attacks Against Black-Box Machine Learning Models

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Many machine learning algorithms are vulnerable to almost imperceptible perturbations of their inputs. So far it was unclear how much risk adversarial perturbations carry for the safety of real-world machine learning applications because most methods used to generate such perturbations rely either on detailed model information (gradient-based attacks) or on confidence scores such as class probabilities (score-based attacks), neither of which are available in most real-world scenarios. In many such cases one currently needs to retreat to transfer-based attacks which rely on cumbersome substitute models, need access to the training data and can be defended against. Here we emphasise the importance of attacks which solely rely on the final model decision. Such decision-based attacks are (1) applicable to real-world black-box models such as autonomous cars, (2) need less knowledge and are easier to apply than transfer-based attacks and (3) are more robust to simple defences than gradient- or score-based attacks. Previous attacks in this category were limited to simple models or simple datasets. Here we introduce the Boundary Attack, a decision-based attack that starts from a large adversarial perturbation and then seeks to reduce the perturbation while staying adversarial. The attack is conceptually simple, requires close to no hyperparameter tuning, does not rely on substitute models and is competitive with the best gradient-based attacks in standard computer vision tasks like ImageNet. We apply the attack on two black-box algorithms from Clarifai.com. The Boundary Attack in particular and the class of decision-based attacks in general open new avenues to study the robustness of machine learning models and raise new questions regarding the safety of deployed machine learning systems. An implementation of the attack is available as part of Foolbox at https://github.com/bethgelab/foolbox .


Adversarial Attacks and Defences: A Survey

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Deep learning has emerged as a strong and efficient framework that can be applied to a broad spectrum of complex learning problems which were difficult to solve using the traditional machine learning techniques in the past. In the last few years, deep learning has advanced radically in such a way that it can surpass human-level performance on a number of tasks. As a consequence, deep learning is being extensively used in most of the recent day-to-day applications. However, security of deep learning systems are vulnerable to crafted adversarial examples, which may be imperceptible to the human eye, but can lead the model to misclassify the output. In recent times, different types of adversaries based on their threat model leverage these vulnerabilities to compromise a deep learning system where adversaries have high incentives. Hence, it is extremely important to provide robustness to deep learning algorithms against these adversaries. However, there are only a few strong countermeasures which can be used in all types of attack scenarios to design a robust deep learning system. In this paper, we attempt to provide a detailed discussion on different types of adversarial attacks with various threat models and also elaborate the efficiency and challenges of recent countermeasures against them.