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Tackling Climate Change with Machine Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity, and we, as machine learning experts, may wonder how we can help. Here we describe how machine learning can be a powerful tool in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and helping society adapt to a changing climate. From smart grids to disaster management, we identify high impact problems where existing gaps can be filled by machine learning, in collaboration with other fields. Our recommendations encompass exciting research questions as well as promising business opportunities. We call on the machine learning community to join the global effort against climate change.



Large expert-curated database for benchmarking document similarity detection in biomedical literature search

#artificialintelligence

Document recommendation systems for locating relevant literature have mostly relied on methods developed a decade ago. This is largely due to the lack of a large offline gold-standard benchmark of relevant documents that cover a variety of research fields such that newly developed literature search techniques can be compared, improved and translated into practice. To overcome this bottleneck, we have established the RElevant LIterature SearcH consortium consisting of more than 1500 scientists from 84 countries, who have collectively annotated the relevance of over 180 000 PubMed-listed articles with regard to their respective seed (input) article/s. The majority of annotations were contributed by highly experienced, original authors of the seed articles. The collected data cover 76% of all unique PubMed Medical Subject Headings descriptors. No systematic biases were observed across different experience levels, research fields or time spent on annotations.


AI Is Used to Discover a Novel Antibiotic

#artificialintelligence

Researchers announced the breakthrough discovery of a new type of antibiotic compound that is capable of killing many types of harmful bacteria, including deadly antibiotic-resistant strains, and published their findings in Cell on February 20. What makes this remarkable is that the researchers, from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Harvard, and McMaster University, used machine learning (a form of artificial intelligence) to discover the new antibiotic--an achievement that heralds the disruption of traditional research and drug development processes deployed by pharmaceutical industry behemoths. Antibiotic resistance is a global threat that is exacerbated by the overuse of antibiotics in livestock, the proliferation of antimicrobials in consumer products, and over-prescription in health care. Though estimating the future impact is challenging, one report predicted that by 2050, 10 million deaths per year could result from antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) infections. Combating the problem of antimicrobial resistance requires bringing novel compounds to market.