The objective of the first CARLA autonomous driving challenge was to deploy autonomous driving systems to lead with complex traffic scenarios where all participants faced the same challenging traffic situations. According to the organizers, this competition emerges as a way to democratize and to accelerate the research and development of autonomous vehicles around the world using the CARLA simulator contributing to the development of the autonomous vehicle area. Therefore, this paper presents the architecture design for the navigation of an autonomous vehicle in a simulated urban environment that attempts to commit the least number of traffic infractions, which used as the baseline the original architecture of the platform for autonomous navigation CaRINA 2. Our agent traveled in simulated scenarios for several hours, demonstrating his capabilities, winning three out of the four tracks of the challenge, and being ranked second in the remaining track. Our architecture was made towards meeting the requirements of CARLA Autonomous Driving Challenge and has components for obstacle detection using 3D point clouds, traffic signs detection and classification which employs Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and depth information, risk assessment with collision detection using short-term motion prediction, decision-making with Markov Decision Process (MDP), and control using Model Predictive Control (MPC).
Due to the growing awareness of driving safety and the development of sophisticated technologies, advanced driving assistance system (ADAS) has been equipped in more and more vehicles with higher accuracy and lower price. The latest progress in this field has called for a review to sum up the conventional knowledge of ADAS, the state-of-the-art researches, and novel applications in real-world. With the help of this kind of review, newcomers in this field can get basic knowledge easier and other researchers may be inspired with potential future development possibility. This paper makes a general introduction about ADAS by analyzing its hardware support and computation algorithms. Different types of perception sensors are introduced from their interior feature classifications, installation positions, supporting ADAS functions, and pros and cons. The comparisons between different sensors are concluded and illustrated from their inherent characters and specific usages serving for each ADAS function. The current algorithms for ADAS functions are also collected and briefly presented in this paper from both traditional methods and novel ideas. Additionally, discussions about the definition of ADAS from different institutes are reviewed in this paper, and future approaches about ADAS in China are introduced in particular.
Autonomous Vehicles (AV) are expected to bring considerable benefits to society, such as traffic optimization and accidents reduction. They rely heavily on advances in many Artificial Intelligence (AI) approaches and techniques. However, while some researchers in this field believe AI is the core element to enhance safety, others believe AI imposes new challenges to assure the safety of these new AI-based systems and applications. In this non-convergent context, this paper presents a systematic literature review to paint a clear picture of the state of the art of the literature in AI on AV safety. Based on an initial sample of 4870 retrieved papers, 59 studies were selected as the result of the selection criteria detailed in the paper. The shortlisted studies were then mapped into six categories to answer the proposed research questions. An AV system model was proposed and applied to orient the discussions about the SLR findings. As a main result, we have reinforced our preliminary observation about the necessity of considering a serious safety agenda for the future studies on AI-based AV systems.
In recent years, the range of sensing technologies has expanded rapidly, whereas sensor devices have become cheaper. This has led to a rapid expansion in condition monitoring of systems, structures, vehicles, and machinery using sensors. Key factors are the recent advances in networking technologies such as wireless communication and mobile ad hoc networking coupled with the technology to integrat... View full abstract» This paper provides a review of the literature in on-road vision-based vehicle detection, tracking, and behavior understanding. Over the past decade, vision-based surround perception has progressed from its infancy into maturity. We provide a survey of recent works in the literature, placing vision-based vehicle detection in the context of sensor-based on-road surround analysis.
Vulnerable road users (VRUs, i.e. cyclists and pedestrians) will play an important role in future traffic. To avoid accidents and achieve a highly efficient traffic flow, it is important to detect VRUs and to predict their intentions. In this article a holistic approach for detecting intentions of VRUs by cooperative methods is presented. The intention detection consists of basic movement primitive prediction, e.g. standing, moving, turning, and a forecast of the future trajectory. Vehicles equipped with sensors, data processing systems and communication abilities, referred to as intelligent vehicles, acquire and maintain a local model of their surrounding traffic environment, e.g. crossing cyclists. Heterogeneous, open sets of agents (cooperating and interacting vehicles, infrastructure, e.g. cameras and laser scanners, and VRUs equipped with smart devices and body-worn sensors) exchange information forming a multi-modal sensor system with the goal to reliably and robustly detect VRUs and their intentions under consideration of real time requirements and uncertainties. The resulting model allows to extend the perceptual horizon of the individual agent beyond their own sensory capabilities, enabling a longer forecast horizon. Concealments, implausibilities and inconsistencies are resolved by the collective intelligence of cooperating agents. Novel techniques of signal processing and modelling in combination with analytical and learning based approaches of pattern and activity recognition are used for detection, as well as intention prediction of VRUs. Cooperation, by means of probabilistic sensor and knowledge fusion, takes place on the level of perception and intention recognition. Based on the requirements of the cooperative approach for the communication a new strategy for an ad hoc network is proposed.