In recent years, researchers have proposed many deep learning (DL) methods for various tasks, and particularly face recognition (FR) made an enormous leap using these techniques. Deep FR systems benefit from the hierarchical architecture of the DL methods to learn discriminative face representation. Therefore, DL techniques significantly improve state-of-the-art performance on FR systems and encourage diverse and efficient real-world applications. In this paper, we present a comprehensive analysis of various FR systems that leverage the different types of DL techniques, and for the study, we summarize 168 recent contributions from this area. We discuss the papers related to different algorithms, architectures, loss functions, activation functions, datasets, challenges, improvement ideas, current and future trends of DL-based FR systems. We provide a detailed discussion of various DL methods to understand the current state-of-the-art, and then we discuss various activation and loss functions for the methods. Additionally, we summarize different datasets used widely for FR tasks and discuss challenges related to illumination, expression, pose variations, and occlusion. Finally, we discuss improvement ideas, current and future trends of FR tasks.
In this paper, we propose an approach for Facial Expressions Recognition (FER) based on a deep multi-facial patches aggregation network. Deep features are learned from facial patches using deep sub-networks and aggregated within one deep architecture for expression classification . Several problems may affect the performance of deep-learning based FER approaches, in particular, the small size of existing FER datasets which might not be sufficient to train large deep learning networks. Moreover, it is extremely time-consuming to collect and annotate a large number of facial images. To account for this, we propose two data augmentation techniques for facial expression generation to expand FER labeled training datasets. We evaluate the proposed framework on three FER datasets. Results show that the proposed approach achieves state-of-art FER deep learning approaches performance when the model is trained and tested on images from the same dataset. Moreover, the proposed data augmentation techniques improve the expression recognition rate, and thus can be a solution for training deep learning FER models using small datasets. The accuracy degrades significantly when testing for dataset bias.
Facial expressions are important cues to observe human emotions. Facial expression recognition has attracted many researchers for years, but it is still a challenging topic since expression features vary greatly with the head poses, environments, and variations in the different persons involved. In this work, three major steps are involved to improve the performance of micro-facial expression recognition. First, an Adaptive Homomorphic Filtering is used for face detection and rotation rectification processes. Secondly, Micro-facial features were used to extract the appearance variations of a testing image-spatial analysis. The features of motion information are used for expression recognition in a sequence of facial images. An effective Micro-Facial Expression Based Deep-Rooted Learning (MFEDRL) classifier is proposed in this paper to better recognize spontaneous micro-expressions by learning parameters on the optimal features. This proposed method includes two loss functions such as cross entropy loss function and centre loss function. Then the performance of the algorithm will be evaluated using recognition rate and false measures. Simulation results show that the predictive performance of the proposed method outperforms that of the existing classifiers such as Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Deep Neural Network (DNN), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and k-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) in terms of accuracy and Mean Absolute Error (MAE).
Facial sketches drawn by artists are widely used for visual identification applications and mostly by law enforcement agencies, but the quality of these sketches depend on the ability of the artist to clearly replicate all the key facial features that could aid in capturing the true identity of a subject. Recent works have attempted to synthesize these sketches into plausible visual images to improve visual recognition and identification. However, synthesizing photo-realistic images from sketches proves to be an even more challenging task, especially for sensitive applications such as suspect identification. In this work, we propose a novel approach that adopts a generative adversarial network that synthesizes a single sketch into multiple synthetic images with unique attributes like hair color, sex, etc. We incorporate a hybrid discriminator which performs attribute classification of multiple target attributes, a quality guided encoder that minimizes the perceptual dissimilarity of the latent space embedding of the synthesized and real image at different layers in the network and an identity preserving network that maintains the identity of the synthesised image throughout the training process. Our approach is aimed at improving the visual appeal of the synthesised images while incorporating multiple attribute assignment to the generator without compromising the identity of the synthesised image. We synthesised sketches using XDOG filter for the CelebA, WVU Multi-modal and CelebA-HQ datasets and from an auxiliary generator trained on sketches from CUHK, IIT-D and FERET datasets. Our results are impressive compared to current state of the art.
Heterogeneous face recognition (HFR) refers to matching a probe face image taken from one modality to face images acquired from another modality. It plays an important role in security scenarios. However, HFR is still a challenging problem due to great discrepancies between cross-modality images. This paper proposes an asymmetric joint learning (AJL) approach to handle this issue. The proposed method transforms the cross-modality differences mutually by incorporating the synthesized images into the learning process which provides more discriminative information. Although the aggregated data would augment the scale of intra-classes, it also reduces the diversity (i.e. discriminative information) for inter-classes. Then, we develop the AJL model to balance this dilemma. Finally, we could obtain the similarity score between two heterogeneous face images through the log-likelihood ratio. Extensive experiments on viewed sketch database, forensic sketch database and near infrared image database illustrate that the proposed AJL-HFR method achieve superior performance in comparison to state-of-the-art methods.