A novel kernel-based support vector machine (SVM) for graph classification is proposed. The SVM feature space mapping consists of a sequence of graph convolutional layers, which generates a vector space representation for each vertex, followed by a pooling layer which generates a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) representation for the graph. The use of a RKHS offers the ability to implicitly operate in this space using a kernel function without the computational complexity of explicitly mapping into it. The proposed model is trained in a supervised end-to-end manner whereby the convolutional layers, the kernel function and SVM parameters are jointly optimized with respect to a regularized classification loss. This approach is distinct from existing kernel-based graph classification models which instead either use feature engineering or unsupervised learning to define the kernel function. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model outperforms existing deep learning baseline models on a number of datasets.

Van Tran, Dinh, Navarin, Nicolò, Sperduti, Alessandro

Recently, many researchers have been focusing on the definition of neural networks for graphs. The basic component for many of these approaches remains the graph convolution idea proposed almost a decade ago. In this paper, we extend this basic component, following an intuition derived from the well-known convolutional filters over multi-dimensional tensors. In particular, we derive a simple, efficient and effective way to introduce a hyper-parameter on graph convolutions that influences the filter size, i.e. its receptive field over the considered graph. We show with experimental results on real-world graph datasets that the proposed graph convolutional filter improves the predictive performance of Deep Graph Convolutional Networks.

Zhang, Muhan (Washington University in St. Louis) | Cui, Zhicheng ( Washington University in St. Louis ) | Neumann, Marion ( Washington University in St. Louis ) | Chen, Yixin ( Washington University in St. Louis )

Neural networks are typically designed to deal with data in tensor forms. In this paper, we propose a novel neural network architecture accepting graphs of arbitrary structure. Given a dataset containing graphs in the form of (G,y) where G is a graph and y is its class, we aim to develop neural networks that read the graphs directly and learn a classification function. There are two main challenges: 1) how to extract useful features characterizing the rich information encoded in a graph for classification purpose, and 2) how to sequentially read a graph in a meaningful and consistent order. To address the first challenge, we design a localized graph convolution model and show its connection with two graph kernels. To address the second challenge, we design a novel SortPooling layer which sorts graph vertices in a consistent order so that traditional neural networks can be trained on the graphs. Experiments on benchmark graph classification datasets demonstrate that the proposed architecture achieves highly competitive performance with state-of-the-art graph kernels and other graph neural network methods. Moreover, the architecture allows end-to-end gradient-based training with original graphs, without the need to first transform graphs into vectors.

Bai, Lu, Jiao, Yuhang, Rossi, Luca, Cui, Lixin, Cheng, Jian, Hancock, Edwin R.

This paper proposes a new Quantum Spatial Graph Convolutional Neural Network (QSGCNN) model that can directly learn a classification function for graphs of arbitrary sizes. Unlike state-of-the-art Graph Convolutional Neural Network (GCNN) models, the proposed QSGCNN model incorporates the process of identifying transitive aligned vertices between graphs, and transforms arbitrary sized graphs into fixed-sized aligned vertex grid structures. In order to learn representative graph characteristics, a new quantum spatial graph convolution is proposed and employed to extract multi-scale vertex features, in terms of quantum information propagation between grid vertices of each graph. Since the quantum spatial convolution preserves the grid structures of the input vertices (i.e., the convolution layer does not change the original spatial sequence of vertices), the proposed QSGCNN model allows to directly employ the traditional convolutional neural network architecture to further learn from the global graph topology, providing an end-to-end deep learning architecture that integrates the graph representation and learning in the quantum spatial graph convolution layer and the traditional convolutional layer for graph classifications. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed QSGCNN model in relation to existing state-of-the-art methods. The proposed QSGCNN model addresses the shortcomings of information loss and imprecise information representation arising in existing GCN models associated with the use of SortPooling or SumPooling layers. Experiments on benchmark graph classification datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed QSGCNN model.

Wan, Jiang, Pollard, Blake S., Chhetri, Sujit Rokka, Goyal, Palash, Faruque, Mohammad Abdullah Al, Canedo, Arquimedes

The digitalization of automation engineering generates large quantities of engineering data that is interlinked in knowledge graphs. Classifying and clustering subgraphs according to their functionality is useful to discover functionally equivalent engineering artifacts that exhibit different graph structures. This paper presents a new graph learning algorithm designed to classify engineering data artifacts -- represented in the form of graphs -- according to their structure and neighborhood features. Our Structural Graph Convolutional Neural Network (SGCNN) is capable of learning graphs and subgraphs with a novel graph invariant convolution kernel and downsampling/pooling algorithm. On a realistic engineering-related dataset, we show that SGCNN is capable of achieving ~91% classification accuracy.