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Black-box Adversarial Attacks with Bayesian Optimization Machine Learning

October 1, 2019 Abstract We focus on the problem of black-box adversarial attacks, where the aim is to generate adversarial examples using information limited to loss function evaluations of input-output pairs. We use Bayesian optimization (BO) to specifically cater to scenarios involving low query budgets to develop query efficient adversarial attacks. We alleviate the issues surrounding BO in regards to optimizing high dimensional deep learning models by effective dimension upsampling techniques. Our proposed approach achieves performance comparable to the state of the art black-box adversarial attacks albeit with a much lower average query count. In particular, in low query budget regimes, our proposed method reduces the query count up to 80% with respect to the state of the art methods. 1 Introduction Neural networks are now well-known to be vulnerable to adversarial examples: additive perturbations that, when applied to the input, change the network's output classification [9]. Work investigating this lack of robustness to adversarial examples often takes the form of a back-and-forth between newly proposed adversarial attacks, methods for quickly and efficiently crafting adversarial examples, and corresponding defenses that modify the classifier at either training or test time to improve robustness. The most successful adversarial attacks use gradient-based optimization methods [9, 17], which require complete knowledge of the architecture and parameters of the target network; this assumption is referred to as the white-box attack setting.

Benchmarking adversarial attacks and defenses for time-series data Artificial Intelligence

The adversarial vulnerability of deep networks has spurred the interest of researchers worldwide. Unsurprisingly, like images, adversarial examples also translate to time-series data as they are an inherent weakness of the model itself rather than the modality. Several attempts have been made to defend against these adversarial attacks, particularly for the visual modality. In this paper, we perform detailed benchmarking of well-proven adversarial defense methodologies on time-series data. We restrict ourselves to the $L_{\infty}$ threat model. We also explore the trade-off between smoothness and clean accuracy for regularization-based defenses to better understand the trade-offs that they offer. Our analysis shows that the explored adversarial defenses offer robustness against both strong white-box as well as black-box attacks. This paves the way for future research in the direction of adversarial attacks and defenses, particularly for time-series data.

Non-Determinism in Neural Networks for Adversarial Robustness Machine Learning

Recent breakthroughs in the field of deep learning have led to advancements in a broad spectrum of tasks in computer vision, audio processing, natural language processing and other areas. In most instances where these tasks are deployed in real-world scenarios, the models used in them have been shown to be susceptible to adversarial attacks, making it imperative for us to address the challenge of their adversarial robustness. Existing techniques for adversarial robustness fall into three broad categories: defensive distillation techniques, adversarial training techniques, and randomized or non-deterministic model based techniques. In this paper, we propose a novel neural network paradigm that falls under the category of randomized models for adversarial robustness, but differs from all existing techniques under this category in that it models each parameter of the network as a statistical distribution with learnable parameters. We show experimentally that this framework is highly robust to a variety of white-box and black-box adversarial attacks, while preserving the task-specific performance of the traditional neural network model.

Improving Black-box Adversarial Attacks with a Transfer-based Prior

Neural Information Processing Systems

We consider the black-box adversarial setting, where the adversary has to generate adversarial perturbations without access to the target models to compute gradients. Previous methods tried to approximate the gradient either by using a transfer gradient of a surrogate white-box model, or based on the query feedback. However, these methods often suffer from low attack success rates or poor query efficiency since it is non-trivial to estimate the gradient in a high-dimensional space with limited information. To address these problems, we propose a prior-guided random gradient-free (P-RGF) method to improve black-box adversarial attacks, which takes the advantage of a transfer-based prior and the query information simultaneously. The transfer-based prior given by the gradient of a surrogate model is appropriately integrated into our algorithm by an optimal coefficient derived by a theoretical analysis.

Boosting Adversarial Attacks with Momentum Machine Learning

Deep neural networks are vulnerable to adversarial examples, which poses security concerns on these algorithms due to the potentially severe consequences. Adversarial attacks serve as an important surrogate to evaluate the robustness of deep learning models before they are deployed. However, most of existing adversarial attacks can only fool a black-box model with a low success rate. To address this issue, we propose a broad class of momentum-based iterative algorithms to boost adversarial attacks. By integrating the momentum term into the iterative process for attacks, our methods can stabilize update directions and escape from poor local maxima during the iterations, resulting in more transferable adversarial examples. To further improve the success rates for black-box attacks, we apply momentum iterative algorithms to an ensemble of models, and show that the adversarially trained models with a strong defense ability are also vulnerable to our black-box attacks. We hope that the proposed methods will serve as a benchmark for evaluating the robustness of various deep models and defense methods. With this method, we won the first places in NIPS 2017 Non-targeted Adversarial Attack and Targeted Adversarial Attack competitions.