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Synthetic vs Real: Deep Learning on Controlled Noise

arXiv.org Machine Learning

A BSTRACT Performing controlled experiments on noisy data is essential in thoroughly understanding deep learning across a spectrum of noise levels. Due to the lack of suitable datasets, previous research have only examined deep learning on controlled synthetic noise, and real-world noise has never been systematically studied in a controlled setting. To this end, this paper establishes a benchmark of real-world noisy labels at 10 controlled noise levels. As real-world noise possesses unique properties, to understand the difference, we conduct a large-scale study across a variety of noise levels and types, architectures, methods, and training settings. Our study shows that: (1) Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) generalize much better on real-world noise. We hope our benchmark, as well as our findings, will facilitate deep learning research on noisy data. 1 I NTRODUCTION Y ou take the blue pill you wake up in your bed and believe whatever you want to believe. Y ou take the red pill and I show you how deep the rabbit hole goes. Remember, all I'm offering is the truth. Morpheus (The Matrix 1999) Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) trained on noisy data demonstrate intriguing properties. For example, DNNs are capable of memorizing completely random training labels but generalize poorly on clean test data Zhang et al. (2017). When trained with stochastic gradient descent, DNNs learn patterns first before memorizing the label noise Arpit et al. (2017). These findings inspired recent research on noisy data. As training data are usually noisy, the fact that DNNs are able to memorize the noisy labels highlights the importance of deep learning research on noisy data. To study DNNs on noisy data, previous work often performs controlled experiments by injecting a series of synthetic noises into a well-annotated dataset. The noise level p may vary in the range of 0%- 100%, where p 0% is the clean dataset whereas p 100% represents the dataset of zero correct labels.


Class2Simi: A New Perspective on Learning with Label Noise

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Label noise is ubiquitous in the era of big data. Deep learning algorithms can easily fit the noise and thus cannot generalize well without properly modeling the noise. In this paper, we propose a new perspective on dealing with label noise called Class2Simi. Specifically, we transform the training examples with noisy class labels into pairs of examples with noisy similarity labels and propose a deep learning framework to learn robust classifiers directly with the noisy similarity labels. Note that a class label shows the class that an instance belongs to; while a similarity label indicates whether or not two instances belong to the same class. It is worthwhile to perform the transformation: We prove that the noise rate for the noisy similarity labels is lower than that of the noisy class labels, because similarity labels themselves are robust to noise. For example, given two instances, even if both of their class labels are incorrect, their similarity label could be correct. Due to the lower noise rate, Class2Simi achieves remarkably better classification accuracy than its baselines that directly deals with the noisy class labels.


Learning to Learn from Noisy Labeled Data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Despite the success of deep neural networks (DNNs) in image classification tasks, the human-level performance relies on massive training data with high-quality manual annotations, which are expensive and time-consuming to collect. There exist many inexpensive data sources on the web, but they tend to contain inaccurate labels. Training on noisy labeled datasets causes performance degradation because DNNs can easily overfit to the label noise. To overcome this problem, we propose a noise-tolerant training algorithm, where a meta-learning update is performed prior to conventional gradient update. The proposed meta-learning method simulates actual training by generating synthetic noisy labels, and train the model such that after one gradient update using each set of synthetic noisy labels, the model does not overfit to the specific noise. We conduct extensive experiments on the noisy CIFAR-10 dataset and the Clothing1M dataset. The results demonstrate the advantageous performance of the proposed method compared to several state-of-the-art baselines.


Learning with Feature-Dependent Label Noise: A Progressive Approach

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Label noise is frequently observed in real-world large-scale datasets. The noise is introduced due to a variety of reasons; it is heterogeneous and feature-dependent. Most existing approaches to handling noisy labels fall into two categories: they either assume an ideal feature-independent noise, or remain heuristic without theoretical guarantees. In this paper, we propose to target a new family of featuredependent label noise, which is much more general than commonly used i.i.d. Focusing on this general noise family, we propose a progressive label correction algorithm that iteratively corrects labels and refines the model. We provide theoretical guarantees showing that for a wide variety of (unknown) noise patterns, a classifier trained with this strategy converges to be consistent with the Bayes classifier. In experiments, our method outperforms SOTA baselines and is robust to various noise types and levels. Addressing noise in training set labels is an important problem in supervised learning. Incorrect annotation of data is inevitable in large-scale data collection, due to intrinsic ambiguity of data/class and mistakes of human/automatic annotators (Yan et al., 2014; Andreas et al., 2017). Developing methods that are resilient to label noise is therefore crucial in real-life applications.


Improving Generalization by Controlling Label-Noise Information in Neural Network Weights

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In the presence of noisy or incorrect labels, neural networks have the undesirable tendency to memorize information about the noise. Standard regularization techniques such as dropout, weight decay or data augmentation sometimes help, but do not prevent this behavior. If one considers neural network weights as random variables that depend on the data and stochasticity of training, the amount of memorized information can be quantified with the Shannon mutual information between weights and the vector of all training labels given inputs, $I(w : \mathbf{y} \mid \mathbf{x})$. We show that for any training algorithm, low values of this term correspond to reduction in memorization of label-noise and better generalization bounds. To obtain these low values, we propose training algorithms that employ an auxiliary network that predicts gradients in the final layers of a classifier without accessing labels. We illustrate the effectiveness of our approach on versions of MNIST, CIFAR-10, and CIFAR-100 corrupted with various noise models, and on a large-scale dataset Clothing1M that has noisy labels.