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Black-box Adversarial Attacks on Video Recognition Models

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Deep neural networks (DNNs) are known for their vulnerability to adversarial examples. These are examples that have undergone a small, carefully crafted perturbation, and which can easily fool a DNN into making misclassifications at test time. Thus far, the field of adversarial research has mainly focused on image models, under either a white-box setting, where an adversary has full access to model parameters, or a black-box setting where an adversary can only query the target model for probabilities or labels. Whilst several white-box attacks have been proposed for video models, black-box video attacks are still unexplored. To close this gap, we propose the first black-box video attack framework, called V-BAD. V-BAD is a general framework for adversarial gradient estimation and rectification, based on Natural Evolution Strategies (NES). In particular, V-BAD utilizes \textit{tentative perturbations} transferred from image models, and \textit{partition-based rectifications} found by the NES on partitions (patches) of tentative perturbations, to obtain good adversarial gradient estimates with fewer queries to the target model. V-BAD is equivalent to estimating the projection of an adversarial gradient on a selected subspace. Using three benchmark video datasets, we demonstrate that V-BAD can craft both untargeted and targeted attacks to fool two state-of-the-art deep video recognition models. For the targeted attack, it achieves $>$93\% success rate using only an average of $3.4 \sim 8.4 \times 10^4$ queries, a similar number of queries to state-of-the-art black-box image attacks. This is despite the fact that videos often have two orders of magnitude higher dimensionality than static images. We believe that V-BAD is a promising new tool to evaluate and improve the robustness of video recognition models to black-box adversarial attacks.


LSDAT: Low-Rank and Sparse Decomposition for Decision-based Adversarial Attack

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We propose LSDAT, an image-agnostic decision-based black-box attack that exploits low-rank and sparse decomposition (LSD) to dramatically reduce the number of queries and achieve superior fooling rates compared to the state-of-the-art decision-based methods under given imperceptibility constraints. LSDAT crafts perturbations in the low-dimensional subspace formed by the sparse component of the input sample and that of an adversarial sample to obtain query-efficiency. The specific perturbation of interest is obtained by traversing the path between the input and adversarial sparse components. It is set forth that the proposed sparse perturbation is the most aligned sparse perturbation with the shortest path from the input sample to the decision boundary for some initial adversarial sample (the best sparse approximation of shortest path, likely to fool the model). Theoretical analyses are provided to justify the functionality of LSDAT. Unlike other dimensionality reduction based techniques aimed at improving query efficiency (e.g, ones based on FFT), LSD works directly in the image pixel domain to guarantee that non-$\ell_2$ constraints, such as sparsity, are satisfied. LSD offers better control over the number of queries and provides computational efficiency as it performs sparse decomposition of the input and adversarial images only once to generate all queries. We demonstrate $\ell_0$, $\ell_2$ and $\ell_\infty$ bounded attacks with LSDAT to evince its efficiency compared to baseline decision-based attacks in diverse low-query budget scenarios as outlined in the experiments.


Guessing Smart: Biased Sampling for Efficient Black-Box Adversarial Attacks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We consider adversarial examples in the black-box decision-based scenario. Here, an attacker has access to the final classification of a model, but not its parameters or softmax outputs. Most attacks for this scenario are based either on transferability, which is unreliable, or random sampling, which is often slow. Focusing on the latter, we propose to improve the efficiency of sampling-based attacks with prior beliefs about the target domain. We identify two such priors, image frequency and surrogate gradients, and discuss how to integrate them into a unified sampling procedure. We then formulate the Biased Boundary Attack, which achieves a drastic speedup over the original Boundary Attack. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach against an ImageNet classifier. We also showcase a targeted attack for the Google Cloud Vision API, where we craft convincing examples with just a few hundred queries. Finally, we demonstrate that our approach outperforms the state of the art when facing strong defenses: Our attack scored second place in the targeted attack track of the NeurIPS 2018 Adversarial Vision Challenge.


Adversarial Training against Location-Optimized Adversarial Patches

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Deep neural networks have been shown to be susceptible to adversarial examples -- small, imperceptible changes constructed to cause mis-classification in otherwise highly accurate image classifiers. As a practical alternative, recent work proposed so-called adversarial patches: clearly visible, but adversarially crafted rectangular patches in images. These patches can easily be printed and applied in the physical world. While defenses against imperceptible adversarial examples have been studied extensively, robustness against adversarial patches is poorly understood. In this work, we first devise a practical approach to obtain adversarial patches while actively optimizing their location within the image. Then, we apply adversarial training on these location-optimized adversarial patches and demonstrate significantly improved robustness on CIFAR10 and GTSRB. Additionally, in contrast to adversarial training on imperceptible adversarial examples, our adversarial patch training does not reduce accuracy.


Copy and Paste: A Simple But Effective Initialization Method for Black-Box Adversarial Attacks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Many optimization methods for generating black-box adversarial examples have been proposed, but the aspect of initializing said optimizers has not been considered in much detail. We show that the choice of starting points is indeed crucial, and that the performance of state-of-the-art attacks depends on it. First, we discuss desirable properties of starting points for attacking image classifiers, and how they can be chosen to increase query efficiency. Notably, we find that simply copying small patches from other images is a valid strategy. In an evaluation on ImageNet, we show that this initialization reduces the number of queries required for a state-of-the-art Boundary Attack by 81%, significantly outperforming previous results reported for targeted black-box adversarial examples.