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A Generate-Validate Approach to Answering Questions about Qualitative Relationships

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Qualitative relationships describe how increasing or decreasing one property (e.g. altitude) affects another (e.g. temperature). They are an important aspect of natural language question answering and are crucial for building chatbots or voice agents where one may enquire about qualitative relationships. Recently a dataset about question answering involving qualitative relationships has been proposed, and a few approaches to answer such questions have been explored, in the heart of which lies a semantic parser that converts the natural language input to a suitable logical form. A problem with existing semantic parsers is that they try to directly convert the input sentences to a logical form. Since the output language varies with each application, it forces the semantic parser to learn almost everything from scratch. In this paper, we show that instead of using a semantic parser to produce the logical form, if we apply the generate-validate framework i.e. generate a natural language description of the logical form and validate if the natural language description is followed from the input text, we get a better scope for transfer learning and our method outperforms the state-of-the-art by a large margin of 7.93%.


From 'F' to 'A' on the N.Y. Regents Science Exams: An Overview of the Aristo Project

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

AI has achieved remarkable mastery over games such as Chess, Go, and Poker, and even Jeopardy, but the rich variety of standardized exams has remained a landmark challenge. Even in 2016, the best AI system achieved merely 59.3% on an 8th Grade science exam challenge. This paper reports unprecedented success on the Grade 8 New York Regents Science Exam, where for the first time a system scores more than 90% on the exam's non-diagram, multiple choice (NDMC) questions. In addition, our Aristo system, building upon the success of recent language models, exceeded 83% on the corresponding Grade 12 Science Exam NDMC questions. The results, on unseen test questions, are robust across different test years and different variations of this kind of test. They demonstrate that modern NLP methods can result in mastery on this task. While not a full solution to general question-answering (the questions are multiple choice, and the domain is restricted to 8th Grade science), it represents a significant milestone for the field.


Knowledge Fusion and Semantic Knowledge Ranking for Open Domain Question Answering

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Open Domain Question Answering requires systems to retrieve external knowledge and perform multi-hop reasoning by composing knowledge spread over multiple sentences. In the recently introduced open domain question answering challenge datasets, QASC and OpenBookQA, we need to perform retrieval of facts and compose facts to correctly answer questions. In our work, we learn a semantic knowledge ranking model to re-rank knowledge retrieved through Lucene based information retrieval systems. We further propose a ``knowledge fusion model'' which leverages knowledge in BERT-based language models with externally retrieved knowledge and improves the knowledge understanding of the BERT-based language models. On both OpenBookQA and QASC datasets, the knowledge fusion model with semantically re-ranked knowledge outperforms previous attempts.


Natural Language QA Approaches using Reasoning with External Knowledge

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Question answering (QA) in natural language (NL) has been an important aspect of AI from its early days. Winograd's ``councilmen'' example in his 1972 paper and McCarthy's Mr. Hug example of 1976 highlights the role of external knowledge in NL understanding. While Machine Learning has been the go-to approach in NL processing as well as NL question answering (NLQA) for the last 30 years, recently there has been an increasingly emphasized thread on NLQA where external knowledge plays an important role. The challenges inspired by Winograd's councilmen example, and recent developments such as the Rebooting AI book, various NLQA datasets, research on knowledge acquisition in the NLQA context, and their use in various NLQA models have brought the issue of NLQA using ``reasoning'' with external knowledge to the forefront. In this paper, we present a survey of the recent work on them. We believe our survey will help establish a bridge between multiple fields of AI, especially between (a) the traditional fields of knowledge representation and reasoning and (b) the field of NL understanding and NLQA.


WIQA: A dataset for "What if..." reasoning over procedural text

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We introduce WIQA, the first large-scale dataset of "What if..." questions over procedural text. WIQA contains three parts: a collection of paragraphs each describing a process, e.g., beach erosion; a set of crowdsourced influence graphs for each paragraph, describing how one change a ffects another; and a large (40k) collection of "What if...?" multiple-choice questions derived from the graphs. For example, given a paragraph about beach erosion, would stormy weather result in more or less erosion (or have no e ff ect)? The task is to answer the questions, given their associated paragraph. WIQA contains three kinds of questions: perturbations to steps mentioned in the paragraph; external (out-of-paragraph) perturbations requiring commonsense knowledge; and irrelevant (no e ff ect) perturbations. We find that state-of-the-art models achieve 73.8% accuracy, well below the human performance of 96.3%. We analyze the challenges, in particular tracking chains of influences, and present the dataset as an open challenge to the community.