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Conditional Generative Neural System for Probabilistic Trajectory Prediction

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Effective understanding of the environment and accurate trajectory prediction of surrounding dynamic obstacles are critical for intelligent systems such as autonomous vehicles and wheeled mobile robotics navigating in complex scenarios to achieve safe and high-quality decision making, motion planning and control. Due to the uncertain nature of the future, it is desired to make inference from a probability perspective instead of deterministic prediction. In this paper, we propose a conditional generative neural system (CGNS) for probabilistic trajectory prediction to approximate the data distribution, with which realistic, feasible and diverse future trajectory hypotheses can be sampled. The system combines the strengths of conditional latent space learning and variational divergence minimization, and leverages both static context and interaction information with soft attention mechanisms. We also propose a regularization method for incorporating soft constraints into deep neural networks with differentiable barrier functions, which can regulate and push the generated samples into the feasible regions. The proposed system is evaluated on several public benchmark datasets for pedestrian trajectory prediction and a roundabout naturalistic driving dataset collected by ourselves. The experiment results demonstrate that our model achieves better performance than various baseline approaches in terms of prediction accuracy.


Safe Trajectory Planning Using Reinforcement Learning for Self Driving

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Self-driving vehicles must be able to act intelligently in diverse and difficult environments, marked by high-dimensional state spaces, a myriad of optimization objectives and complex behaviors. Traditionally, classical optimization and search techniques have been applied to the problem of self-driving; but they do not fully address operations in environments with high-dimensional states and complex behaviors. Recently, imitation learning has been proposed for the task of self-driving; but it is labor-intensive to obtain enough training data. Reinforcement learning has been proposed as a way to directly control the car, but this has safety and comfort concerns. We propose using model-free reinforcement learning for the trajectory planning stage of self-driving and show that this approach allows us to operate the car in a more safe, general and comfortable manner, required for the task of self driving.


Congestion-aware Multi-agent Trajectory Prediction for Collision Avoidance

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Predicting agents' future trajectories plays a crucial role in modern AI systems, yet it is challenging due to intricate interactions exhibited in multi-agent systems, especially when it comes to collision avoidance. To address this challenge, we propose to learn congestion patterns as contextual cues explicitly and devise a novel "Sense--Learn--Reason--Predict" framework by exploiting advantages of three different doctrines of thought, which yields the following desirable benefits: (i) Representing congestion as contextual cues via latent factors subsumes the concept of social force commonly used in physics-based approaches and implicitly encodes the distance as a cost, similar to the way a planning-based method models the environment. (ii) By decomposing the learning phases into two stages, a "student" can learn contextual cues from a "teacher" while generating collision-free trajectories. To make the framework computationally tractable, we formulate it as an optimization problem and derive an upper bound by leveraging the variational parametrization. In experiments, we demonstrate that the proposed model is able to generate collision-free trajectory predictions in a synthetic dataset designed for collision avoidance evaluation and remains competitive on the commonly used NGSIM US-101 highway dataset.


Multi-modal Probabilistic Prediction of Interactive Behavior via an Interpretable Model

arXiv.org Machine Learning

For autonomous agents to successfully operate in real world, the ability to anticipate future motions of surrounding entities in the scene can greatly enhance their safety levels since potentially dangerous situations could be avoided in advance. While impressive results have been shown on predicting each agent's behavior independently, we argue that it is not valid to consider road entities individually since transitions of vehicle states are highly coupled. Moreover, as the predicted horizon becomes longer, modeling prediction uncertainties and multi-modal distributions over future sequences will turn into a more challenging task. In this paper, we address this challenge by presenting a multi-modal probabilistic prediction approach. The proposed method is based on a generative model and is capable of jointly predicting sequential motions of each pair of interacting agents. Most importantly, our model is interpretable, which can explain the underneath logic as well as obtain more reliability to use in real applications. A complicate real-world roundabout scenario is utilized to implement and examine the proposed method.


Diversity-Aware Vehicle Motion Prediction via Latent Semantic Sampling

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

--V ehicle trajectory prediction is crucial for autonomous driving and advanced driver assistant systems. While existing approaches may sample from a predicted distribution of vehicle trajectories, they lack the ability to explore it - a key ability for evaluating safety from a planning and verification perspective. In this work, we devise a novel approach for generating realistic and diverse vehicle trajectories. We extend the generative adversarial network (GAN) framework with a low-dimensional approximate semantic space, and shape that space to capture semantics such as merging and turning. We sample from this space in a way that mimics the predicted distribution, but allows us to control coverage of semantically distinct outcomes. We validate our approach on a publicly available dataset and show results that achieve state of the art prediction performance, while providing improved coverage of the space of predicted trajectory semantics. V ehicle trajectory prediction is crucial for autonomous driving and advanced driver assistant systems.