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TENT: Text Classification Based on ENcoding Tree Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Text classification is a primary task in natural language processing (NLP). Recently, graph neural networks (GNNs) have developed rapidly and been applied to text classification tasks. Although more complex models tend to achieve better performance, research highly depends on the computing power of the device used. In this article, we propose TENT (https://github.com/Daisean/TENT) to obtain better text classification performance and reduce the reliance on computing power. Specifically, we first establish a dependency analysis graph for each text and then convert each graph into its corresponding encoding tree. The representation of the entire graph is obtained by updating the representation of the non-leaf nodes in the encoding tree. Experimental results show that our method outperforms other baselines on several datasets while having a simple structure and few parameters.


Contextual Graph Markov Model: A Deep and Generative Approach to Graph Processing

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We introduce the Contextual Graph Markov Model, an approach combining ideas from generative models and neural networks for the processing of graph data. It founds on a constructive methodology to build a deep architecture comprising layers of probabilistic models that learn to encode the structured information in an incremental fashion. Context is diffused in an efficient and scalable way across the graph vertexes and edges. The resulting graph encoding is used in combination with discriminative models to address structure classification benchmarks.


Dynamics Based Features For Graph Classification

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Numerous social, medical, engineering and biological challenges can be framed as graph-based learning tasks. Here, we propose a new feature based approach to network classification. We show how dynamics on a network can be useful to reveal patterns about the organization of the components of the underlying graph where the process takes place. We define generalized assortativities on networks and use them as generalized features across multiple time scales. These features turn out to be suitable signatures for discriminating between different classes of networks. Our method is evaluated empirically on established network benchmarks. We also introduce a new dataset of human brain networks (connectomes) and use it to evaluate our method. Results reveal that our dynamics based features are competitive and often outperform state of the art accuracies.


A simple yet effective baseline for non-attribute graph classification

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Graphs are complex objects that do not lend themselves easily to typical learning tasks. Recently, a range of approaches based on graph kernels or graph neural networks have been developed for graph classification and for representation learning on graphs in general. As the developed methodologies become more sophisticated, it is important to understand which components of the increasingly complex methods are necessary or most effective. As a first step, we develop a simple yet meaningful graph representation, and explore its effectiveness in graph classification. We test our baseline representation for the graph classification task on a range of graph datasets. Interestingly, this simple representation achieves similar performance as the state-of-the-art graph kernels and graph neural networks for non-attributed graph classification. Its performance on classifying attributed graphs is slightly weaker as it does not incorporate attributes. However, given its simplicity and efficiency, we believe that it still serves as an effective baseline for attributed graph classification. Our graph representation is efficient (linear-time) to compute. We also provide a simple connection with the graph neural networks. Note that these observations are only for the task of graph classification while existing methods are often designed for a broader scope including node embedding and link prediction. The results are also likely biased due to the limited amount of benchmark datasets available. Nevertheless, the good performance of our simple baseline calls for the development of new, more comprehensive benchmark datasets so as to better evaluate and analyze different graph learning methods. Furthermore, given the computational efficiency of our graph summary, we believe that it is a good candidate as a baseline method for future graph classification (or even other graph learning) studies.


An End-to-End Deep Learning Architecture for Graph Classification

AAAI Conferences

Neural networks are typically designed to deal with data in tensor forms. In this paper, we propose a novel neural network architecture accepting graphs of arbitrary structure. Given a dataset containing graphs in the form of (G,y) where G is a graph and y is its class, we aim to develop neural networks that read the graphs directly and learn a classification function. There are two main challenges: 1) how to extract useful features characterizing the rich information encoded in a graph for classification purpose, and 2) how to sequentially read a graph in a meaningful and consistent order. To address the first challenge, we design a localized graph convolution model and show its connection with two graph kernels. To address the second challenge, we design a novel SortPooling layer which sorts graph vertices in a consistent order so that traditional neural networks can be trained on the graphs. Experiments on benchmark graph classification datasets demonstrate that the proposed architecture achieves highly competitive performance with state-of-the-art graph kernels and other graph neural network methods. Moreover, the architecture allows end-to-end gradient-based training with original graphs, without the need to first transform graphs into vectors.