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A Structural Smoothing Framework For Robust Graph Comparison

Neural Information Processing Systems

In this paper, we propose a general smoothing framework for graph kernels by taking \textit{structural similarity} into account, and apply it to derive smoothed variants of popular graph kernels. Our framework is inspired by state-of-the-art smoothing techniques used in natural language processing (NLP). However, unlike NLP applications which primarily deal with strings, we show how one can apply smoothing to a richer class of inter-dependent sub-structures that naturally arise in graphs. Moreover, we discuss extensions of the Pitman-Yor process that can be adapted to smooth structured objects thereby leading to novel graph kernels. Our kernels are able to tackle the diagonal dominance problem, while respecting the structural similarity between sub-structures, especially under the presence of edge or label noise.


Learning from graphs with structural variation

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We study the effect of structural variation in graph data on the predictive performance of graph kernels. To this end, we introduce a novel, noise-robust adaptation of the GraphHopper kernel and validate it on benchmark data, obtaining modestly improved predictive performance on a range of datasets. Next, we investigate the performance of the state-of-the-art Weisfeiler-Lehman graph kernel under increasing synthetic structural errors and find that the effect of introducing errors depends strongly on the dataset.


On Valid Optimal Assignment Kernels and Applications to Graph Classification

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The success of kernel methods has initiated the design of novel positive semidefinite functions, in particular for structured data. A leading design paradigm for this is the convolution kernel, which decomposes structured objects into their parts and sums over all pairs of parts. Assignment kernels, in contrast, are obtained from an optimal bijection between parts, which can provide a more valid notion of similarity. In general however, optimal assignments yield indefinite functions, which complicates their use in kernel methods. We characterize a class of base kernels used to compare parts that guarantees positive semidefinite optimal assignment kernels. These base kernels give rise to hierarchies from which the optimal assignment kernels are computed in linear time by histogram intersection. We apply these results by developing the Weisfeiler-Lehman optimal assignment kernel for graphs. It provides high classification accuracy on widely-used benchmark data sets improving over the original Weisfeiler-Lehman kernel.


On Valid Optimal Assignment Kernels and Applications to Graph Classification

Neural Information Processing Systems

The success of kernel methods has initiated the design of novel positive semidefinite functions, in particular for structured data. A leading design paradigm for this is the convolution kernel, which decomposes structured objects into their parts and sums over all pairs of parts. Assignment kernels, in contrast, are obtained from an optimal bijection between parts, which can provide a more valid notion of similarity. In general however, optimal assignments yield indefinite functions, which complicates their use in kernel methods. We characterize a class of base kernels used to compare parts that guarantees positive semidefinite optimal assignment kernels. These base kernels give rise to hierarchies from which the optimal assignment kernels are computed in linear time by histogram intersection. We apply these results by developing the Weisfeiler-Lehman optimal assignment kernel for graphs. It provides high classification accuracy on widely-used benchmark data sets improving over the original Weisfeiler-Lehman kernel.


Deep Weisfeiler-Lehman Assignment Kernels via Multiple Kernel Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Kernels for structured data are commonly obtained by decomposing objects into their parts and adding up the similarities between all pairs of parts measured by a base kernel. Assignment kernels are based on an optimal bijection between the parts and have proven to be an effective alternative to the established convolution kernels. We explore how the base kernel can be learned as part of the classification problem. We build on the theory of valid assignment kernels derived from hierarchies defined on the parts. We show that the weights of this hierarchy can be optimized via multiple kernel learning. We apply this result to learn vertex similarities for the Weisfeiler-Lehman optimal assignment kernel for graph classification. We present first experimental results which demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the approach.