We present an artificial neural network (ANN) approach to value financial derivatives. Atypically to standard ANN applications, practitioners equally use option pricing models to validate market prices and to infer unobserved prices. Importantly, models need to generate realistic arbitrage-free prices, meaning that no option portfolio can lead to risk-free profits. The absence of arbitrage opportunities is guaranteed by penalizing the loss using soft constraints on an extended grid of input values. ANNs can be pre-trained by first calibrating a standard option pricing model, and then training an ANN to a larger synthetic dataset generated from the calibrated model. The parameters transfer as well as the non-arbitrage constraints appear to be particularly useful when only sparse or erroneous data are available. We also explore how deeper ANNs improve over shallower ones, as well as other properties of the network architecture. We benchmark our method against standard option pricing models, such as Heston with and without jumps. We validate our method both on training sets, and testing sets, namely, highlighting both their capacity to reproduce observed prices and predict new ones.
Modeling financial time series by stochastic processes is a challenging task and a central area of research in financial mathematics. In this paper, we break through this barrier and present Quant GANs, a data-driven model which is inspired by the recent success of generative adversarial networks (GANs). Quant GANs consist of a generator and discriminator function which utilize temporal convolutional networks (TCNs) and thereby achieve to capture longer-ranging dependencies such as the presence of volatility clusters. Furthermore, the generator function is explicitly constructed such that the induced stochastic process allows a transition to its risk-neutral distribution. Our numerical results highlight that distributional properties for small and large lags are in an excellent agreement and dependence properties such as volatility clusters, leverage effects, and serial autocorrelations can be generated by the generator function of Quant GANs, demonstrably in high fidelity.
We propose a fully data-driven approach to calibrate local stochastic volatility (LSV) models, circumventing in particular the ad hoc interpolation of the volatility surface. To achieve this, we parametrize the leverage function by a family of feed-forward neural networks and learn their parameters directly from the available market option prices. This should be seen in the context of neural SDEs and (causal) generative adversarial networks: we generate volatility surfaces by specific neural SDEs, whose quality is assessed by quantifying, possibly in an adversarial manner, distances to market prices. The minimization of the calibration functional relies strongly on a variance reduction technique based on hedging and deep hedging, which is interesting in its own right: it allows the calculation of model prices and model implied volatilities in an accurate way using only small sets of sample paths. For numerical illustration we implement a SABR-type LSV model and conduct a thorough statistical performance analysis on many samples of implied volatility smiles, showing the accuracy and stability of the method.
Neural network based data-driven market simulation unveils a new and flexible way of modelling financial time series, without imposing assumptions on the underlying stochastic dynamics. Though in this sense generative market simulation is model-free, the concrete modelling choices are nevertheless decisive for the features of the simulated paths. We give a brief overview of currently used generative modelling approaches and performance evaluation metrics for financial time series, and address some of the challenges to achieve good results in the latter. We also contrast some classical approaches of market simulation with simulation based on generative modelling and highlight some advantages and pitfalls of the new approach. While most generative models tend to rely on large amounts of training data, we present here a generative model that works reliably even in environments where the amount of available training data is notoriously small. Furthermore, we show how a rough paths perspective combined with a parsimonious Variational Autoencoder framework provides a powerful way for encoding and evaluating financial time series in such environments where available training data is scarce. Finally, we also propose a suitable performance evaluation metric for financial time series and discuss some connections of our Market Generator to deep hedging.
We study neural networks as nonparametric estimation tools for the hedging of options. To this end, we design a network, named HedgeNet, that directly outputs a hedging strategy. This network is trained to minimise the hedging error instead of the pricing error. Applied to end-of-day and tick prices of S&P 500 and Euro Stoxx 50 options, the network is able to reduce the mean squared hedging error of the Black-Scholes benchmark significantly. We illustrate, however, that a similar benefit arises by simple linear regressions that incorporate the leverage effect. Finally, we show how a faulty training/test data split, possibly along with an additional 'tagging' of data, leads to a significant overestimation of the outperformance of neural networks.