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Deep Multi-Facial Patches Aggregation Network For Facial Expression Recognition

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we propose an approach for Facial Expressions Recognition (FER) based on a deep multi-facial patches aggregation network. Deep features are learned from facial patches using deep sub-networks and aggregated within one deep architecture for expression classification . Several problems may affect the performance of deep-learning based FER approaches, in particular, the small size of existing FER datasets which might not be sufficient to train large deep learning networks. Moreover, it is extremely time-consuming to collect and annotate a large number of facial images. To account for this, we propose two data augmentation techniques for facial expression generation to expand FER labeled training datasets. We evaluate the proposed framework on three FER datasets. Results show that the proposed approach achieves state-of-art FER deep learning approaches performance when the model is trained and tested on images from the same dataset. Moreover, the proposed data augmentation techniques improve the expression recognition rate, and thus can be a solution for training deep learning FER models using small datasets. The accuracy degrades significantly when testing for dataset bias.


Facial Expression Recognition Using a Hybrid CNN-SIFT Aggregator

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Deriving an effective facial expression recognition component is important for a successful human-computer interaction system. Nonetheless, recognizing facial expression remains a challenging task. This paper describes a novel approach towards facial expression recognition task. The proposed method is motivated by the success of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) on the face recognition problem. Unlike other works, we focus on achieving good accuracy while requiring only a small sample data for training. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features are used to increase the performance on small data as SIFT does not require extensive training data to generate useful features. In this paper, both Dense SIFT and regular SIFT are studied and compared when merged with CNN features. Moreover, an aggregator of the models is developed. The proposed approach is tested on the FER-2013 and CK+ datasets. Results demonstrate the superiority of CNN with Dense SIFT over conventional CNN and CNN with SIFT. The accuracy even increased when all the models are aggregated which generates state-of-art results on FER-2013 and CK+ datasets, where it achieved 73.4% on FER-2013 and 99.1% on CK+.


Deep Multi-Facial patches Aggregation Network for Expression Classification from Face Images

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Emotional Intelligence in Human-Computer Interaction has attracted increasing attention from researchers in multidisciplinary research fields including psychology, computer vision, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, and related disciplines. Human prone to naturally interact with computers face-to-face. Human Expressions is an important key to better link human and computers. Thus, designing interfaces able to understand human expressions and emotions can improve Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) for better communication. In this paper, we investigate HCI via a deep multi-facial patches aggregation network for Face Expression Recognition (FER). Deep features are extracted from facial parts and aggregated for expression classification. Several problems may affect the performance of the proposed framework like the small size of FER datasets and the high number of parameters to learn. For That, two data augmentation techniques are proposed for facial expression generation to expand the labeled training. The proposed framework is evaluated on the extended Cohn-Konade dataset (CK+) and promising results are achieved.


Micro-Facial Expression Recognition in Video Based on Optimal Convolutional Neural Network (MFEOCNN) Algorithm

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Facial expression is a standout amongst the most imperative features of human emotion recognition. For demonstrating the emotional states facial expressions are utilized by the people. In any case, recognition of facial expressions has persisted a testing and intriguing issue with regards to PC vision. Recognizing the Micro-Facial expression in video sequence is the main objective of the proposed approach. For efficient recognition, the proposed method utilizes the optimal convolution neural network. Here the proposed method considering the input dataset is the CK+ dataset. At first, by means of Adaptive median filtering preprocessing is performed in the input image. From the preprocessed output, the extracted features are Geometric features, Histogram of Oriented Gradients features and Local binary pattern features. The novelty of the proposed method is, with the help of Modified Lion Optimization (MLO) algorithm, the optimal features are selected from the extracted features. In a shorter computational time, it has the benefits of rapidly focalizing and effectively acknowledging with the aim of getting an overall arrangement or idea. Finally, the recognition is done by Convolution Neural network (CNN). Then the performance of the proposed MFEOCNN method is analysed in terms of false measures and recognition accuracy. This kind of emotion recognition is mainly used in medicine, marketing, E-learning, entertainment, law and monitoring. From the simulation, we know that the proposed approach achieves maximum recognition accuracy of 99.2% with minimum Mean Absolute Error (MAE) value. These results are compared with the existing for MicroFacial Expression Based Deep-Rooted Learning (MFEDRL), Convolutional Neural Network with Lion Optimization (CNN+LO) and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) without optimization. The simulation of the proposed method is done in the working platform of MATLAB.


Hey Human, If your Facial Emotions are Uncertain, You Should Use Bayesian Neural Networks!

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Facial emotion recognition is the task to classify human emotions in face images. It is a difficult task due to high aleatoric uncertainty and visual ambiguity. A large part of the literature aims to show progress by increasing accuracy on this task, but this ignores the inherent uncertainty and ambiguity in the task. In this paper we show that Bayesian Neural Networks, as approximated using MC-Dropout, MC-DropConnect, or an Ensemble, are able to model the aleatoric uncertainty in facial emotion recognition, and produce output probabilities that are closer to what a human expects. We also show that calibration metrics show strange behaviors for this task, due to the multiple classes that can be considered correct, which motivates future work. We believe our work will motivate other researchers to move away from Classical and into Bayesian Neural Networks.